Monday, December 24, 2007

Algeria Travel Guide

Lonely Planet just published its first guide to Algeria. And tour organizations like Row International ( are taking adventure seekers through the meandering alleyways of the Casbah and on camelback into the Sahara. The New York Times, Sunday, December 9, 2007.

Algeria Travel Guide

Algeria Travel Guide

1st Edition / August 2007
ISBN: 9781741790993
256 pp / 8 pp colour / 30 maps
Anthony Ham , Anthony Sattin , Nana Luckham

Algeria is the most fascinating country you never thought of visiting. This North African destination has two primary drawcards: outstanding Roman ruins and the exceptional landscapes of the Sahara. So tie your turban like a Tuareg and get ready to rock the Casbah.

  • Only English-language guidebook to Algiers
  • Guide to the best Roman ruins in Africa
  • Special chapter on travelling deep into the Sahara
  • The best of Algiers' accommodation options
Destination Algeria

Algeria is the most fascinating country you never thought of visiting.
Off limits for decades, Algeria is again struggling to its feet, resilient and ready to show you just why the country is becoming many travelers favourite North African destination. Like all countries along the southern Mediterranean rim, Algeria has two primary drawcards: outstanding Roman ruins and the exceptional landscapes of the Sahara. The difference is that Algeria has them in almost embarassing abundance.
Algeria's catalogue of ancient Roman cities is astonishingly varied. Tipaza, a favourite of Albert Camus, weaves among the palm trees and down to the shores of the Mediterranean. Djemila, nestled amid the hills, stunningly evokes northeastern Algeria's ancient past, while Hippo Regius is alive with the echoes of St Augustine. A further four Roman sites, all in the country's mountainous northeast, make Algeria a paradise for the amateur archaeologist in you.
Further from the coast, you don't have to travel too deep into the Sahara to be swept up in its magic. The oases of the west - Taghit, Beni Abbes and Timimoun - are surrounded by palm trees and the dunes of the Grand Erg Occidental (Great Western Erg) and are home to glorious
mud-brick architecture. Intriguing Ghardaia stands at the heart f the M'zab Valley, home to one of the world's few remnant Ibadi Muslim communities. Deep in the desert's heart in Algeria's far south, Assekrem (the End of the World), Atakor and the Tassili du Hoggar, where the otherworldly rock formations are the spiritual home of the Tuareg, are the stuff of legend for even the most experienced of Saharan travelers. Away to the remote southeast is the mythical terrain of the Tassili N'Ajjer where superbly rendered, millennia-old rock are tells the Sahara's story in shades of ochre and other earth tones.
It all comes together in Algiers, a city that's as alive any in the world. When deciding to include Algiers' Casbah on its World Heritage list, Unesco described it as 'one of the finest coastal sites on the Mediterranean' and we're inclined to agree. Also on the northern coast are Algeria's most beautiful cities. Constantine is stunning. Oran, the birthplace and home of rai, Algeria's world famous musical export, is an intriguing marriage of France and Spain. And Tlemcen could easily be one of Andalucia's most beautiful cities were it not in Algeria.
There's something about Algeria that has always given it the quality of an epic and perhaps that's why so many great travelers of the past have sought to know it, and from St Augustine in Hippo Regius to Isabelle Eberhardt in the oases of the Sahara, from Red Beard the pirate-king to Charles de Foucauld the desert hermit somewhere close to the End of the World.

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Tebessa, Algeria - Byzantine basilica

Guelma, Algeria - Roman theatre

Roman Arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad)

Algeria celebrates the 5th anniversary of its first satellite

Guildford, UK, November 28, 2007: This week, Algeria celebrates the 5th anniversary of its first satellite, AlSAT-1 which marked the beginning of the country's national space programme. Five years on, the African nation not only benefits from improved cartography, pollution monitoring and petrology information, but also makes a significant contribution to international disaster response.

AlSAT-1 was launched on November 28, 2002 following the creation of the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) by presidential decree on the January 16, 2002. British company SSTL built AlSAT-1 and provided training for engineers from the Centre National des Techniques Spatiales (CNTS) as part of a development and training programme that helped the country take its first steps into space.

AlSAT-1 was the first satellite in the 5-satellite Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). Under the coordination of SSTL's subsidiary, DMCii Ltd, DMC satellite owners share image data and the infrastructure required to operate their satellite.

Algeria has developed a national space programme that takes full advantage of their satellite and DMC partnership for the benefit of the Algerian people. CNTS distributes satellite image data to Algerian institutions for cartography, pollution monitoring and petrology applications. This summer, AlSAT-1 was used to assess the damage of devastating forest fires in areas such as Djebel Belezma and Beni Fedhla, supplemented with additional data from the DMC.

AlSAT-1 also makes a valuable contribution to the DMC and assists international disaster response through the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters. Dr Azzedine Oussedik, Director General, Algerian Space Agency, explained: "We are proud of our national space programme and of our role in establishing the DMC. As a member of the DMC Consortium, we are effectively extending the reach of our capability by sharing the significant space asset that a constellation affords – a benefit enjoyed by all the DMC partners. We also earn a financial return on our investment by supplying images to DMCii for commercial purposes such as precision agriculture."

AlSAT-1 was built with a 5 year design life but is expected to continue operations for the foreseeable future. Like the other satellites in the DMC, AlSAT-1 was built by SSTL with a 32m optical imaging payload capable of imaging areas as large as 640 x 560 km very rapidly. The next generation of DMC satellites currently under manufacture at SSTL, namely NigeriaSat-2 (Nigeria), UK-DMC2 (UK) and Deimos-1 (Spain) will offer increased resolution for more detailed Earth observation.

Algeria is keen to further develop its own space industry with particular interest in Earth observation and telecommunications and in 2006, the UK Minister for Science and Technology, on behalf of the British National Space Centre, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL).

Source :

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Presence in Mediterranean Geopolitics

Algeria draws on its revolutionary experience and leadership in the non-aligned movement as sources of influence and prestige in the Arab World, and in international affairs more broadly. After more than a decade of conflict and isolation, Algiers is clearly looking to rebuild its regional power and influence, in part through a more active engagement with the U.S. and NATO on security issues. The country's energy resources and diverse international ties, with Russia and China among others, lend an asymmetric quality to the competition between Morocco and Algeria. Russia continues to be an important supplier of military equipment to Algeria, and China has been active as a partner in the energy sector (including Algeria's civil nuclear power program). As Algeria reemerges as an actor on the international scene, it may face harder choices among its European, Atlantic and Eurasian connections. (Page 29).

After more than a decade of isolation and turmoil, Algeria has rediscovered its once vibrant international role, and now aims for a position of influence if not leadership. This re engagement has a strong security dimension, and goes beyond traditional bilateral links in Western Europe to include cooperation with the U.S. and NATO. Algiers has become one of the most active partners in NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue since joining in 2001, and this activism goes some way toward balancing the eastern Mediterranean weight of NATO (and EU) security engagement in the region. The country's energy and security roles, and plans for military modernization, are likely to make Algeria a much more significant presence in Mediterranean geopolitics over the coming decade . (Page 44).

In Portugal and the Southern Mediterranean: Transatlantic Interest and Strategies
By Ian Lesser
Published by Luso-American Development Foundation, Lisbon, July 2006

Sunday, September 23, 2007


Baya Mahieddine: An Arab Woman Artist

by Sana` Makhoul

In 1947, Picasso took the sixteen year old Baya by the hand to his country home at Vallauris to watch her knead the clay and bring to life child-like shapes and figures. (1) Picasso, who stated that he spent his entire life learning how to paint like a child, was fascinated by the art and spontaneity of the Algerian woman artist, Baya Mahieddine. However, later on, in 1954, Algerian women became his exotic subjects in his series, Women of Algiers. I chose to undertake my research on Baya Mahieddine, an Arab woman artist of the twentieth century, for several reasons.

Baya was born at Bordj el-Kiffan in Algeria in 1931, to a poor family, and she never attended school. Canonized and conventional professional art making required some formal training. Similarly, class was a vital factor: professional art making was an accepted accomplishment for women from privileged upper-class families, but rarely for those from poorer families, who found it necessary to pursue more financially profitable professions. Poor women were and are making art, but not in the sense of being professional art makers; it is more often part of their daily life tradition and a tool to earn money for survival, and their work is usually considered craft rather than art by institutionalized definitions.

Baya, a poor servant and self-taught artist, produced a body of work that can be understood both from the perspective of class and her lack of formal education. Western colonizers directed art schools in Arab countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the early stages of modern Arab art movements, to aspire to become an artist was to learn the vocabulary of forms taught by Western artists who were the principal teachers in these schools. Despite the Arab world’s own multi-layered artistic heritage and traditions, this faculty consisted of European artists who taught the history of Western art beginning with the Renaissance. Students enrolled in these schools were taught by their European instructors to recognize and emulate the different styles of Western art, such as the Algerian artist, Mohammed Racim, who studied at L’Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts d’Alger. Some Arab artists went to Europe in order to receive art training there, and came back to their countries as strong proponents of Western styles and aesthetics, such as the Syrian artist, Tawfiq Tariq, who studied in Paris. This type of training produced a first generation of Arab modern artists whose works followed the different “isms” of the West, including Orientalism. Yet, some Arab artists did not follow the Western art tradition; instead, they adapted their own native artistic traditions, and Baya was among them.

At age five, Baya lost both her parents, and her grandmother took care of her. In 1936 Marguerite Benhoura, (2) a French woman, fled to Algeria to escape World War II. Algeria was then a French colony. Marguerite met the ten-year-old Baya in her village, Bordj el-Kiffan, and offered Baya a room in her house. Baya refers to her as her “adoptive parent.” (3) Being adopted into an upper-class family one can raise the question: why was not Baya sent to school? This mystery was resolved when I met Yoyo Maeght at the Maeght Gallery in Paris in January 1998. Yoyo told me that Baya worked as a servant for Marguerite. It is a reliable source, because Marguerite was Yoyo’s godmother.

Baya started making animals and human figures out of clay before joining Marguerite’s household. Marguerite was fascinated by Baya’s art, and introduced her to gouache and watercolors. Baya spent most of her time painting with colors. In 1947, sixteen-year-old Baya mounted her first solo exhibition which was arranged by Marguerite. The exhibition took place at the Galerie Adrien Maeght in Paris. Baya’s work was praised by the “pope of Surrealism,” André Breton: “And here, profiled on the fabric threads of the future’s virgin, the hieratic figure of Baya, lifting a corner of the veil, revealing what the young united, harmonious, and loving world could be... It is undeniable that her gear of wonders, ...secretly takes part in extracts of perfumes from Thousand and One Nights... Baya, whose mission is to recharge with meaning the beautiful nostalgic words: The Happy Arabia.” (4) Beyond the ostentatious “surrealist” essay of Breton on Baya, one can sense in his words the nostalgia for a certain Orient: not the actual existing Orient, but the imaginary, transformed by the eye of the Westerner, who can see only the “corner of the veil” lifted to reveal “The Happy Arabia,” and “fairy tales” filled with “extracts of perfumes” from “Thousand and One Nights” that haunted the Orientalist’s thought for a long time. Like Frida Kahlo, Baya Mahieddine was categorized as a surrealist artist, and her art was interpreted by the surrealists as a fantasy and fairy tale of unreal reality. They went as far as to include her name in the “General Dictionary of Surrealism and Its Surroundings.” (5)

At the time of her exhibit in Paris in 1947, there was a resurgent interest in non-European arts: paintings, masks, textiles, and ar-chitecture. After World War II and Nazism, Europe experienced a deep crisis of civilization felt most strongly by intellectuals and artists. These circles were searching for a universal dimension of expression, but not without some
attraction to the “exotic.” This was quite obvious in Breton’s essay on Baya’s exhibit: “there is far away from this old world so-called civilized, this world running out of breath, this dragon with a hundred dried up breasts, this knocked down moster whose scales are decomposing... races, castes were pitted against oneanother, and the dragon could not stop vomiting the carnage and the oppression.” (6) In addition to the national crisis of devastating war was the crisis of European colonialism and imperialism on a global scale, specifically the colonization of Algeria by France. I argue that French intellectual circles took a particular interest in Baya’s work not only because of their specific interest in non-European art, but also because she is an Algerian woman. Maybe there is some feeling of guilt that is tangled in her case. Yet, Baya was exoticized by Westerners and was not mainstreamed.

The misinterpretation of Baya’s art by Western and Arab art critics is another point that I would like to discuss here. Some Arab art critics echoed and followed Western interpretations of Baya’s art as surrealist. Algerian art critic Benamar Mediene writes “...she stands at the heart of surrealism,”(7) and Jordanian art critic Wijdan Ali notes that “Baya’s style, based on childhood dreams and imagination, incorporated naïve, surrealisticforms.” (8) The use of Western definitions and terminology by Arab art critics to interpret art production by Arab artists demonstrates the colonized minds and thinking in a Neo-colonial (9) period.

Other art critics classify Baya’s work as naïve art. Naïve art is defined as an art produced by self-taught artists who lack formal training. The popularity of Henri Rousseau as a naïve artist refutes this definition because he had some formal art training. We may need to redefine naïve art. Naïve painting may appear to be innocent and childlike, a deceptive perception because Western naïve artists borrow conventional composition and techniques from the history of art. Western modern artists’ interest in naïve art stems from their fascination with “primitive”(12) cultures and the unconscious states of mind. Naïve painting is a by-product of “individual psyches rather than communal history.”(13)

I argue that Baya’s artwork, like Frida Kahlo’s, expresses the richness of her own “native”(14)culture and art. Baya’s paintings express the world around her, as she sometimes admits.(15) She is grounded in an Arabo-Berber culture in Algeria. Algeria, a land of a multifold history, originally was inhabited by native Berbers, followed by a long history of invaders such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans, and French. A complex history of traditions is made of different influences: mystic and pagan, conventional and transgressive, puritanical and sensual. The themes and motifs of Baya’s native art are predominant in her paintings; their richly colorful and rhythmic patterns remind us of oriental carpets, traditional textiles, ceramics, gardens, and architecture. Baya’s art is very detailed, using fish, fruit, butterflies, birds, flowers, vases, musical instruments, women and children. Her forms are constant, and her expressions are repetitive with some variations from one painting to another. Her use of repetition is similar to that of Islamic art. Her husband, Hadj Mahieddine El Mahfoudh, a well-known Algerian musician, inspires musical instruments in her paintings. I see also similarities between her work and the tradition of mural paintings which adorn the houses in North Africa, usually painted by women there.

Baya’s depiction of human figures in her painting challenges the preconception of a Western onlooker, who assumes that images of human figures are forbidden in ‘Islamic art.’ (16) I argue that this is a false Western myth about ‘Islamic art.’ Since its beginning ‘Islamic art’ depicted human figures, including nudes, in the secular realm, yet in the religious domain human figures were forbidden. Many religions prohibited the depiction of human figures in their religious sanctuaries, but for some reason, this idea is correlated only with Islamic art and became stereotypical of all art production by Muslims. In my opinion, this myth came into existence in order to ostracize the Other, in this case Islam. Even the term ‘Islamic art’ was invented by nineteenth and twentieth century Western historians.(17) Western thought has replaced restrictive geographic or ethnic terms, which had been previously thought distinct, as “Turkish,” “Indian,” “Arab,” “Persian,” “Maghrib,” and so forth, with all-embracing homogeneous terms such as “Islamic” or “Muslim/Moslem.”(18) Islamic art, as a global term, encompasses hundreds of years and a geographical reach extending at different times from Spain to India and the Far East.

Between 1952 and 1967 Baya stopped painting. These years she spent bearing and raising children at Blida in Algeria. In 1967, she picked up her paintbrush and color again. She has exhibited her work in many solo and group exhibitions in her native country, Algeria, and in France. Removing Baya from her cultural traditions, and juxtaposing her work with the European modernists who took a particular interest in her work, provided not only a new manner of characterizing artistic modernism, but also illustrates that the ideal of a static East was an important component of a modernism traditionally characterized as an internal European creation. Why do we have to define and categorize artwork from non-Western cultures by imposing on them Western definitions and terminology? Baya rejects classifying her art as surrealist and/or as naïve art. She says it is Baya! Maybe we should call it Bayaism?! •

Note: I delivered this paper at the Women’s Caucus for Art session –“Crossing Borders, Mapping Boundaries; Exploring Issues of Culture and Context in Women’s Art,” at the College Art Association 86th annual conference in Toronto, Canada, 1998. I am grateful to all those who have made my research possible in Paris. In particular, Nadine Ghammache, whose support and invaluable help in translating some documents from French to English enabled me to write this paper. My thanks also to the faculty of the Art History Department at San Jose State University for their support and encouragement, and to San Jose State University for awarding me a travel grant that helped me do my research in Paris and deliver my paper in Toronto.

1. Benamar Mediene, “Algeria,” in Contemporary Art From the Islamic World, ed. Wijdan Ali (London: Scorpion
Publishing Ltd., 1989), 19.

2. Marguerite Benhoura was working as an archivist at the Muslim Bureau of Charities in Algeria.

3. Améziane Ferhani, “Interview de Baya,” Algérie Actualités, no. 852, 17 février 1982.

4. André Breton, “Baya,” catalogue d’exposition, coll. Derrière le Miroir, (Paris: Edition Adrien Maeght, 1947).

5. Jean de Maisonseul, “Baya L’enchanteresse” in Baya, a catalog on her exhibition at Cantine Museum, Marseille (Marseille: Impr. Municipale, 1982), 16.

6. Breton, “ Baya.”

7. Benamar Mediene, essay on art in Algeria, in Contemporary Art From the Islamic World, 19.

8. Wijdan Ali, “Modern Arab Art: An Overview” in Forces of Change: Artists of the Arab World, ed. Salwa Mikdadi Nashashibi et al. (Washington D.C.: The National Museum of Women in the Arts, 1994), a catalog for a traveling exhibition in the United States of Arab women artists, 92.

9. I use the term ‘Neo-colonial’ instead of ‘Post-colonial,’ because I consider the term ‘post-colonial’ problematic as an indicator to this period. In my opinion, colonialism did not end. Today, it conveys new forms and ways of Western imperialistic hegemony by monopolizing the global economy and knowledge, therefore I call it a Neo-colonial period.

10. Robert Atkins, Art Spoke: A Guide to Modern Ideas, Movements, and Buzzwords, 1848-1944 (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1993), excerpt from the Surrealist manifesto, 203.

11. Atkins, Art Spoke, 203-4.

12. Using a term such as “primitive” implies a bipolar, adversely hierarchical relationship between “primitive” and “civilized.” Nevertheless, I use it because I want to address certain commonalities that arise from the impact of essentialized discourse within colonialist discussion. To convey my continued discomfort with the terminology, I awkwardly use this term in quotation marks in order to point it out and question is validity, but it does not mean that I agree with its use.

13. Atkins, Art Spoke, 144.

14. Words as “native” or “indigenous” create problematic categories, as I indicate further, the complex history of traditions in alteria blurs the original meaning of the word “native.” But this blend of multicultural tradition is very specific to Algeria’s own particular history; therefore we can categorize it as native Algerian culture.

15 In an interview by Lazhari Labter in Révolution Africaine, no. 1199, 20 février 1987, p.61, Baya replies to what do her paintings reflect: “My painting is not areflection of the outside world, but of my own world within me...” In another interview by Moulay B., she replies that her paintings come “from things that surround me, from music, ...from things in life...”

16. I use the term ‘Islamic Art’ in quotation marks in order to point it out and question its validity that will discuss further in my discussion.

17.Mohammad Al-Asad, “The Re-invention of Tradition: Neo-Islamic Architecture,” Proceedings of the XXVII International Congress of the History of Art (Berlin 1992).

18. Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom, The Art and Architecture of Islam: 1250-1800 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994), 303.

Sana` Makhoul is a gradute student in the Art History Department at San Jose State University. Her area of concentration is on images of women, in particular Arab women, in Western art.

Self-Inventory and The Other

Kateb Yacine

Kateb Yacine est né en 1929 à Constantine, dans l'Est de l'Algérie. Son père avait une double culture, française et musulmane. Après l'école coranique, il entre à l'école et au lycée français. Il a participé, lorsqu'il avait 15 ans (1945) à Sétif à la grande manifestation des musulmans qui protestent contre la situation inégale qui leur est faite. Kateb est alors arrêté et emprisonné quatre mois durant. Il ne peut reprendre ses études et se rend à Annaba, puis en France. De retour en Algérie, en 1948, il entre au quotidien Alger Républicain et y reste jusqu'en 1951. Il est alors docker, puis il revient en France où il exerce divers métiers, publie son premier roman et part à l'étranger (Italie, Tunisie, Belgique, Allemagne...). Ensuite, il poursuivra ses voyages avec les tournées de ses différents spectacles. Il est mort en 1989.

Bibliographie :

Nedjma, Edition du Seuil, Paris, 1956, Points roman, 1981.
Le cercle des représailles, Edition du Seuil, Paris, 1959.
Le Polygone étoilé, Edition du Seuil, Paris, 1966
L'homme aux sandales de caoutchouc, Edition du Seuil, Paris, 1970.
L'oeuvre en fragments, Edition Sindbad, 1986.
Théâtre en arabe dialectal algérien :
Mohammed prends ta valise, 1971.
Saout Ennisa, 1972.
La guerre de 2000 ans, 1974.
La Palestine trahie, 1972-1982.

Kateb Yacine (1929-1989)

Algerian novelist, poet, and playwright. Kateb wrote in French until the beginning of the 1970s, when he started to use in his théâtre de combat vernacular Arabic. Kateb's Nedjma (1956) was the first Maghribi novel to be instantly recognized as a classic, and has since acquired the status of national revolutionary novel.

Kateb Yacine was born in Condé-Smendou, near Constantine, into an old, highly literate family. His father was Kateb Mohamed and mother Kateb Jasmina. Kateb was raised on tales of Arab achievement as well as on the legends of the Algerian heroes. After attending a Qur'anic school, he entered the French-language school system. In 1945 Kateb's studies at the Collège de Sétif were interrupted by his arrest, following his participation in a nationalist demonstration in Setif. The demonstration had turned to rioting and massacre of thousands people by the police and the army. Kateb was imprisoned without trial and freed a few months later. While in prison, Kateb discovered his two great loves, revolution and the poetry. One of Kateb's best-known poems, 'La rose de Blida' (1963), was about his mother, who, believing him to have been killed during the demonstration, suffered a mental breakdown.

From 1947 Kateb began to visit regularly France until he settled there permanently. At the age of seventeen, Kateb published his first book, Soliloques (1946), a collection of poems. Like many of Algerian writers-Mouloud Feraoun, Assia Djebar, Tahar Djaout-he wrote in French instead of using Algerian Arabic. In 1948 he published a long poem, 'Nedjma ou le poème ou le couteau', in which the character of Nedjma, a mysterious spirit woman, appeared for the first time. Nedjma also is the name of his cousin, whom the author loved but could not properly court.

Nedjma chaque automne reparue
Non sans m'avoir arraché
Mes larmes et mon Khandjar
Nedjma chaque automne disparue.

Et moi, pâle et terrassé
De la douce ennemie
À jamais séparé:
Les silences de mes pères poètes
Et de ma mère folle
Les sévères regards;
Les pleurs de mes aïeules amazones
Ont enfoui dans ma poitrine
Un coeur de paysan sans terre
Ou de fauve mal abattu.

Bergères taciturnes
À vos chevilles désormais je veille
Avec les doux serpents de Sfahli: mon chant est parvenu!
Bergères taciturnes,
Dites qui vous a attristées
Dites qui vous a poursuives
Qui me sépare de Nedjma?
(from 'Keblout et Nerdjma')

From 1949 to 1951 Kateb worked as a journalist, principally for Alger Républicain. He travelled through Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Soviet Central Asia. For a time he was a dockworker, but from 1952 he devoted himself entirely to writing. In 1955 Kateb was forced to leave France due to his involvement in the Algerian nationalist struggle for independence.

Kateb's most famous work, Nedjma (1957), treats the quest for a restored Algeria in a mythic manner. Its modernist technique, use of multiple narrative voices and discontinuous chronology, has influenced Francophone North African literature and writers elsewhere in the Third World. Kateb himself has admitted that William Faulkner was the most important influence on his style of writing.

Nedjma, which incorporates local legends and popular religious beliefs, is set in Bône, Algeria, under French colonial rule. Owing to the fragmented style, the plot is difficult to follow. Nedjma, a name meaning "star" in Arabic", is a beautiful, married woman, who has uncertain past. She is loved by four revolutionaries, but she comes and goes like the seasons. "Nedjma chaque automne reparue / Non sans m'avoir arraché / Mes larmes et mon Khandjar / Nedjma chaque automne disparue." The more they discover about her, the less they really know. Nedjma never changes, but the other characters pass through all the ages of life. Nedjma, portrayed in an ethereal way, embodies the attachment of traditional Algerians to their clan. Critical attention has concentrated on the novel's unusual structure. The action is not chronological-the narration has similarities with the arabesques and geometric forms of Islamic art.

Kateb took up the themes of and figure Nedjma in many poems and plays. His first play was Le cadavre encerclé (prod. 1958), a drama of colonization and alienation filled with surrealist images. In the mythical expression of the Algerian tragedy, Nedjma represented all the values of Arabic civilization trampled upon by history. Le polygone étoilé (1966), Kateb's second major prose work, introduced several characters from Nedjma. As the author himself explained, everything he has done constitutes "a long single work, always in gestation."

Inspired by Aeschylus, Rimbaud, and Brecht, whom he met in Paris, Kateb decided to break away from lyrical tradition and create a more political theatre. Among Kateb's later works is the play L'Homme aux sandales de caoutchouc (1970, The Man in Rubber Sandals), in which the Vietnamise hero is Ho Chi Minh. In small roles are such characters as Mao Zedong, Chiang Kai-shek, Pierre Loti, and Marie-Antoinette. A series of vignettes highlights the military history of Vietnam and the plight of the transient Algerian labor force in Europe. Characters are presented face to face, the French opposite the Vietnamese, the Viet-Cong opposite the Americans. Brief sequences and spoken chorus alternate. The trial of an American Everyman, called Captain Supermac, occupies the last third of the play. Kateb had visited Vietnam during the war in 1967, when American troops fought with the South Vietnamese and bombed targets in the north. The play was simultaneously produced in Algiers and Lyon.

The open warfare against French rule ended in 1962 when Algerians, voting in a national referendum, approved independence and France recognized Algeria's sovereignty. Since the early 1970s Kateb lived in his native country. Several of his plays were produced in France and Algeria, where he led a popular theatre group. In a short play, Mohammed, prends ta valise (1971), Kateb wanted to show the class complicity that exists between the French bourgeoisie and the Algerian bourgeoisie. He had remarked that the revolutionary writer "must transmit a living message, placing the public at the heart of a theater that partakes of the neverending combat opposing the proletariat to the bourgeoisie." Kateb died on October 28, 1989, in Grenoble, France.

For further reading: The Politics and Aesthetics of Kateb Yacine: From Francophone Literature to Popular Theatre in Algeria and Outside by Kamal Salhi (1999); Encyclopedia of World Literature in the 20th Century, vol. 2. ed. by Steven R. Serafin (1999); Bibliographie Kateb Yacine, ed. by Charles Bonn (1997); The Poetics of Kateb's Fiction by Bernard Aresu (1993); Kateb Yacine: "Nedjma" by Charles Bonn (1990); L'étoile d'araignée by Kristine Aurbakken (1986); "Nedjma" de Kateb Yacine by Marc Gontard (1985); World Authors 1975-1980, ed. by Vineta Colby (1985); Recherches sur la littérature maghrébine de langue française by Jacqueline Aresu (1982); Littérature maghrébine de langue française by J. Déjeux (1973); The French New Novel by L. Le Sage (1962) - For further information: Kateb Yacine (in French) - Genistrek i Algerie - Kateb Yacine, un résistant - Kateb Yacine - Amazigh Heritage - Note: The name "Kateb" means "writer" in Arabic. - Maghribi novel: Northern African novel. The genre is comparatively new to the Arab world. Algerians form the largest group of Maghribis writing in French. Moroccan postmodernist novelists, writing in Arabic, have paved way for experimental fiction. - Note: Kateb Yacine's birthdate in some sources: August 26, 1929.

Selected works:

  • Soliloques, 1946
  • Abdelkader et l'indépendance algérienne, 1948
  • La cadavre encerclé, 1955 (prod. 1958) - The Encircled Corpse
  • Nedjma, 1956 - (trans. by Richard Howard in 1961)
  • Le cercle des représailles, 1959 - The Circle of Reprisals (anthology of plays, includes La cadavre encerclé, Poudre d'intelligence, Les ancêrtres redoublent de férocité)
  • La femme sauvage, 1963 (play)
  • Le Polygone étoilé, 1966
  • Les ancêrtres redoublent de férocité, 1967 (play)
  • L'homme aux sandales de caoutchouc, 1970 - The Man with the Rubber Sandals (anthology of plays)
  • Mohammed prends ta valise, 1971 - Mohammed, Take Your Suitcase
  • Saout Ennisa, 1972
  • La guerre de 2000 ans, 1974 - The 2000-Year War
  • La Palestine trahie, 1972-1982
  • L'oeuvre en fragments, 1986
  • Le poète comme un boxeur: Entretiens, 1958-1989, 1994
  • Minuit passé de douze heures: écrits journalistiques, 1947-1989, 1999
  • Boucherie de espérance: Oeuvres théâtrales, 1999
  • L'Œuvre en fragments, 1999
  • Un théâtre en trois langues, 2003

Thursday, September 6, 2007

La musique châabi en grande pompe sur la scène mondiale

La musique châabi algéroise s'offre une entrée sur la scène internationale avec une mini-tournée européenne qui démarre cette semaine en France à Marseille, avant la sortie en octobre d'un album piloté par le chanteur britannique Damon Albarn et d'un film au printemps 2008.

Le premier concert a lieu jeudi au théâtre marseillais du Gymnase. Quarante de ses plus grands maîtres sont attendus - un nombre de musiciens jamais vu. Ce sera ensuite Paris le 29 septembre, Londres le 10 octobre, Berlin le 31 octobre et New York en 2008.

C'est une jeune algéro-irlandaise, Safinez Bousbia, qui est à l'origine de ce projet à plusieurs tiroirs, baptisé "El Gusto" - la bonne humeur dans le parler algérois.
Au cours d'une balade dans la Casbah il y a trois ans, la jeune femme fait la rencontre d'un musicien: Il lui parle tant et si bien de cette musique, née à la fin du 19e siècle et qui connut son heure de gloire dans les années 1940-1960, qu'elle décide de partir en quête des hommes qui l'ont façonnée mais que l'Histoire a séparés."Je voulais simplement les remettre en relation. Ensuite est née l'idée du film et de l'album", dit-elle.

Une aventure semblable à celle du Buena Vista Social Club de Cuba.
Les financeurs n'ont pas été faciles à convaincre: la plupart des musiciens ont plus de 70 ans. En revanche, Damon Albarn, leader des groupes Blur et Gorillaz, toujours en quête de nouvelles expériences, a rapidement donné son aval pour enregistrer ces "dinosaures".Le concert de Marseille a donné lieu à des retrouvailles émues entre les 33 musiciens arrivés d'Alger et ceux de Paris, qui s'étaient perdus de vue parfois depuis plus de 40 ans."Le plus grand plaisir, c'est de se revoir. Refaire de la musique ensemble, ce sera extraordinaire", dit Luc Cherki.

Ahmed Bernaoui, René Perez, Abdelkader Chercham, Maurice El Medioni... s'interpellent et se taquinent comme s'ils ne s'étaient jamais quittés. Tout à leur plaisir d'être là, ils ont oublié les années de disette où "certains vivaient dans la misère" à Alger, selon Safinez Bousbia.
Le comédien et musicien Robert Castel, venu rendre hommage à son père Lili Labassi, espère que cette expérience permettra au châabi de sortir du cercle des mélomanes.

En France, en 1998, le chanteur Rachid Taha avait popularisé "Ya Rayah", un titre sur l'exil de Dahmane El Arachi, l'un des autres grands maîtres de cette musique mort en 1980. "Mais cela n'a pas été suivi d'effet", regrette-t-il.
Pour cette musique qui chante l'amour, l'amitié, l'absence, la trahison, un orchestre traditionnel compte, outre le chanteur, une dizaine de musiciens - joueurs de mandole, violon, derbouka, tambourin, piano, voire aujourd'hui de synthé.

Le châabi - "populaire" en algérien - puise sa source dans le chant arabo-andalou, rapporté d'Espagne par les Maures mais jugé trop intellectuel par les petits pêcheurs, artisans et prostituées de la Casbah.
Reléguée au second rang ces dernières années par l'émergence du raï et du rap, cette musique n'a pas dit son dernier mot, affirme le chef d'orchestre d'El Gusto El Hadi Halo, fils de Hadj M'Hamed El Anka, qui en a posé les règles."Cette musique véhicule la culture algéroise qu'on ne peut dissocier de la vie quotidienne. Même si elle n'est pas très médiatisée, elle est présente dans tous les évènements: mariages, baptêmes, fêtes religieuses", dit-il. Pour lui, la relève, formée notamment sur les bancs du conservatoire d'Alger où il enseigne, est là.

Par hayet zitouni le 06/09/2007 à 09:16 in "Tout sur l'Algérie"

Wednesday, August 29, 2007


Emir Abdelkader Mosque, Constantine

Mosque, Che Guevara boulevard (Algiers)

Sunset on Bab El Oued, Algiers


Today, the culture and traditions of Algeria reflect the richness of its Berber, Arab, Mediterranean, African, and Muslim heritage. The traveler can enjoy cave paintings in the Tassili left by prehistoric tribes, Roman ruins at Djemila, Timgad, Cherchell and Tipaza. Turkish style buildings in the places such as Casbah of Algiers, Tuareg tribes who have retained their Berber traditions, European architecture in large cities and small towns, all amid resplendent mosques and beautiful white buildings. The country's coastline along the Mediterranean Sea features endless white sand or pebble beaches, with little coves, and small seaports, just as it offers a variety of modern amenities in beautiful beach resorts. The cities of Algiers, Oran, Bedjaia, or Annaba are all special sights to behold each with their own distinct charm.
Go further south to Ghardaia, Djanet, Timimoun and Tamanrasset, and you will experience the immensity of the Sahara desert and the beauty of its never-ending dunes, the peaceful havens of its oases and the legendary hospitality of its populations, and the indelible memory left by its sunsets.


Mirroring its culture, Algeria's cuisine is rich and diverse. It offers a mixture which reflects the variety of the country's landscape. From fish dishes featured in cities and towns along the long Mediterranean coastline, to Berber dishes in the High Plateaus and the mountain regions of Kabylia and the Aures, the cuisine displays great varieties of dishes such as couscous (Algeria has several different types), sweet and savory tajines (stews), and delicate and flavorful pastries.
Algerian households typically eat dishes made with lamb, poultry, or beef and fresh vegetables and herbs. The population is also very fond of grilled meats, such as the world-renowned Merguez (a spicy lamb sausage) or the equally delicious but more elaborate Mechoui (spit-roasted whole lamb with herbs and spices), generally reserved for family celebrations.

Food in Algeria


Algeria is located in North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea. The fertile and mountainous northern region is home to the olive tree, cork oak, and vast evergreen forests where boars and jackals roam. Fig, agave, and various palm trees grow in the warmer areas. The grape vine is native to the coastal plain. Central Algeria consists of the High Plateaus that contain salt marshes and dry or shallow salt lakes. The land becomes more arid (dry) the farther south one travels, eventually becoming the Sahara Desert. Roughly 80 percent of the country is desert, where vegetation is sparse. Camels are widely used in this arid region, although jackals, rabbits, scorpions, and snakes also occupy the deserts.

The coastal region has a typical Mediterranean climate—pleasant nearly year round, with winter temperatures rarely falling below freezing (32°F). Rainfall is also abundant along the coast. Farther inland, higher altitudes receive considerable frost and occasional snow. Little or no rainfall occurs throughout the summer months in this region. In the Sahara Desert, rainfall is unpredictable and unevenly distributed.


Algerian cuisine traces its roots to various countries and ancient cultures that once ruled, visited, or traded with the country. Berber tribesmen were one of the country's earliest inhabitants. Their arrival, which may extend as far back as 30,000 B.C., marked the beginning of wheat cultivation, smen (aged, cooked butter), and fruit consumption, such as dates. The introduction of semolina wheat by the Carthaginians (who occupied much of northern Africa) led the Berbers to first create couscous, Algeria's national dish. The Romans, who eventually took over Algeria, also grew various grains. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Algeria ranked among the top ten importers of grain (such as wheat and barley) in the world, according to

Muslim Arabs invaded Algeria in the 600s, bringing exotic spices such as saffron, nutmeg, ginger, cloves, and cinnamon from the Spice Islands of eastern Indonesia. They also introduced the Islamic religion to the Berbers. Islam continues to influence almost every aspect of an Algerian's life, including the diet.

Olives (and olive oil) and fruits such as oranges, plums, and peaches were brought across the Mediterranean from Spain during an invasion in the 1500s. Sweet pastries from the Turkish Ottomans and tea from European traders also made their way into Algerian cuisine around this time.

In the early 1800s, Algerians were driven off their own lands and forced to surrender their crops and farmland to the French. The French introduced their diet and culture to the Algerians, including their well-known loaves of bread and the establishment of sidewalk cafés. This French legacy remains evident in Algerian culture.

Tomatoes, potatoes, zucchini, and chilies, significant to Algerian local cuisine, were brought over from the New World.


Traditional Algerian cuisine, a colorful combination of Berber, Turkish, French, and Arab tastes, can be either extremely mild or packed with flavorful seasonings. Ginger, saffron, onion, garlic, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, parsley, and mint are essential in any Algerian pantry.

Couscous, the national dish, is often mistaken as a grain itself, rather than pasta. The pasta dough is a mixture of water and coarse, grainy semolina wheat particles. The dough is then crumbled through a sieve to create tiny pellets. Algerians prefer lamb, chicken, or fish to be placed on a bed of warm couscous, along with cooked vegetables such as carrots, chickpeas, and tomatoes, and spicy stews. Couscous can also be used in desserts by adding a variety of ingredients, such as cinnamon, nutmeg, dates, and figs.

No Algerian meal would be complete without bread, normally a long, French loaf. Similar to Middle Eastern customs, bread is often used to scoop food off of a plate or to soak up a spicy sauce or stew. More traditional Berber families usually eat flat, wheat bread.

Mechoui, a roasted whole lamb cooked on an outdoor spit, is usually prepared when a large group of people gathers together. The animal is seasoned with herb butter so the skin is crispy and the meat inside is tender and juicy. Bread and various dried fruits and vegetables, including dates (whose trees can thrive in the country's Sahara desert), often accompany mechoui.

Beverages such as mint tea are a favorite among all North African countries. Tea is usually offered to visiting guests, though coffee flavored with cardamom is another option. With the abundance of fruits year round, fresh juices are plentiful and children tend to favor apricot nectar. Sharbats, fruit or nut-flavored milk drinks, are popular with all ages, including sahlab, a sweet, milky drink. Traditional Berbers, in particular, prefer drinks made from goat milk, although cow milk is now available. Basbousa (Egyptian semolina cake), tamina (roasted semolina with butter and honey), and sweetened couscous are just a few sweets enjoyed by the Algerians.


The overwhelming majority of Algerians, about 99 percent, follow the beliefs of Islam, the country's official religion (Christians and Jews make up only 1 percent of the population).

The Algerian observance of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year, is the most celebrated of all holidays. During the monthlong observance, Muslims are required to fast (avoid consuming food and drink) between sunrise and sunset, although young, growing children and pregnant women may be allowed to eat a small amount. At the end of each day during Ramadan, sometimes as late as midnight, families join together for a feast. French loaves or wheat bread and a pot of hot mint tea will likely serve as refreshments.

The meal marking the end of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr, is the most important feast. It almost always begins with soup or stew. Lamb or beef is most often served as the main dish, although families living close to the Mediterranean in northern Algeria enjoy a variety of seafood. In most Algerian homes, a bowl of fresh fruit is placed on the table at the end of the meal. Traditionally, each person is responsible for peeling and slicing his or her own fruit. However, on special occasions such as Eid al-Fitr, the host will often serve the fruit already peeled, sliced, and flavored (most often with cinnamon and various citrus juices).


Arabs are hospitable and encourage family and friends to share their food. Even an unexpected visitor will be greeted warmly and offered coffee (often flavored with cardamom), while the females of the household prepare the meal. Cooking continues to be considered a woman's duty, as it has in the past. Historically, recipes and cooking customs have been passed down through generations by word of mouth when women gather together to prepare meals.

All meals (normally three a day) are leisurely and sociable, although there are varying degrees of structure and etiquette (polite behavior). Seated at a low table (tabla or mida), food is traditionally eaten with the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger of the right hand. To use four or five fingers is considered to be a sign of over-eating and should be avoided. The dining atmosphere in a middle class family may be a bit more elegant. A servant or young family member might visit each individual at the table, offering a bowl of perfumed water to diners for washing their hands before the meal is eaten.

The country's capital, Algiers, and popular coastal towns tend to have a wide variety of restaurants, particularly French, Italian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Southern Algeria is less populated, and is farther from Algiers and the Mediterranean waters, where seafood and the hustle and bustle of trade are plentiful. Menus usually begin with either a soup or salad, followed by roast meat (usually lamb or beef) or fish as a main course, with fresh fruit commonly completing the meal. In the towns, souks (markets) or street stalls offer take-home products, such as spicy brochettes (kebabs) on French bread for those on the run. With the exception of an occasional fast food burger, school lunches are often such traditional foods as couscous, dried fruit, stews, and sweet fruit drinks.


Brennan, Georgeanne. The Mediterranean Herb Cookbook. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2000.

Mackley, Lesley. The Book of North African Cooking. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group, 1998.

Walden, Hilaire. North African Cooking. Edison, New Jersey: Quintet Publishing Limited, 1995.

Webb, Lois Sinaiko. Holidays of the World Cookbook for Students. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press, 1995.

Fishing boats, Algiers

Emir Abdelkader Place, Algiers

Mallow city

Poppies field in Spring time

Notre Dame d'Afrique, Alger

A Pivotal State

Algeria does occupy an important geostrategic space, and that, taken together with its resources, probably does place it in contention for being considered a pivotal state. Its proximity to Europe, as well as its position as a major Arab state, mean that what happens in Algeria will have repercussions beyond its borders. Although Algeria may no longer serve as a model to others, events in Algeria could still have regional consequences, both negative and positive.
In North Africa and the Middle East, events in Algeria are followed closely.
...Events in Algeria can influence, for better or worse, a wide range of countries in the Middle East and Europe, both regions of importance to the United States; and Algeria is likely to be a major source of energy for Europe in the future, with all that implies for investment opportunities in Algeria for Western companies. On balance, the United States and Europe have every reason to hope that Algeria will follow a stable, positive course in the future and should be prepared to help it where possible.
...If Algeria is as important as we have maintained, it certainly makes sense to try to raise the level of political dialogue (between Algiers and Washington).

By William B. Quandt
in "The Pivotal States: A New Framework for U.S. Policy in the Developing World"
Robert Chase, Emily Hill, Paul Kennedy, Editors
W.W. Norton & Company , New York, 1999.

Les Corsaires de la Regence d'Alger


II Les CORSAIRES barbaresques pratiquent la COURSE pour :
  • avoir la maîtrise du commerce des mers.
  • faire la traite des blancs en peuplant d'ESCLAVES français, italiens, américains les BAGNES D'ALGER de TRIPOLI, TUNIS et du MAROC.
  • Envoyé les femmes dans des Harems d'AFRIQUE, de CONSTANTINOPLE et d'ASIE.

  • Pendant les 3 siècles de présence turque à ALGER, la FRANCE, l'ANGLETERRE, et d'autres pays d'EUROPE s'efforcent d'acheter, au péril de leur dignité, la faveur de la protection des RAÏS ou du DEY, en leur fournissant du matériel. Chacun espérant que les CORSAIRES s'en servent pour nuire à l'autre.
  • Au début du XVIIème siècle, la FLOTTE ALGÉRIENNE se compose de plus de 40 gros vaisseaux et d'autant d'autres embarcations de moindre grandeur. Ce qui est considérable en comparaison de la marine des pays d'EUROPE.

  • Les frères AROUDJ Bras d'Acier et KHEIR EDDINE BARBEROUSSE
  • CACCHI, le diable
  • DJAFFAR RAÏS, le Dieppois
  • DRAGUT le charpentier, gouverne TRIPOLI de 1551 jusqu'à sa mort en 1565.
  • HADJ MOHAMMED, dey en 1671
  • HAMIDOU, au XIXème
  • HASSAN VENEZIANO, l'italien
  • MOURAD, renégat flamand du XVIème, il donne son nom à BIRMANDRES : Bir Mourad Raïs
  • PICCINI, renégat vénitien, devenu ALI BITCHIN, chef de la TAÏFA de 1621 à 1645
  • SALAH RAÏS, tête de Feu
  • SINAM, le borgne



  • EULDJ ALI, le teigneux, calabrais
  • ALI MAMI ou MAMI ARNAUTE (d'ALBANIE), devient Pacha en 1583
  • MEZZO MORTO, dey de 1683 à 1688.



Choukri KHODJA

Martial DOUEL

Pierre HUBAC

NOUS LES FRÈRES BARBEROUSSE corsaires et rois d'Alger

ESCLAVE A ALGER - Récit de la captivité de Joao Mascarenhas (1621-1626)
Traduit du portugais et présenté par Paul TESSIER

Salvatore BONO

LES CORSAIRES BARBARESQUES - La fin d'une épopée 1800-1820, Daniel PANZAC
LES BARBARESQUES - La course et la guerre en Méditerranée XIVème-XVIème siècle
Jacques HEERS

VIVRE ET MOURIR EN ALGER - L'Algérie ottomane aux XVIème-XVIIème siècles : Un destin confisqué,Farid KHIARI

Bibliographie sur l'Algerie-1950-2002


1 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE Gabriel ESQUER Presses Universitaires de France

2 LE MUSÉE STÉPHANE GSELL - Musée des Antiquités et d'Art Musulman d'Alger Georges MARCAIS Gouvernement Général, 1950
6 LA CASBAH D'ALGER Eugène PASQUALI Mémoire de fin d'études, 1951
7 HISTOIRE DE L'AFRIQUE DU NORD - De la conquête arabe à 1830 Charles-André JULIEN Payot, 1952
8 LE BARDO - Musée d'Ethnographie et de Préhistoire d'Alger Imprimerie officielle à Alger, 1952
9 LA VENUS DE CHERCHELL Georges MARCAIS Arts et métiers graphiques Paris, 1952
10 LES PRÉFECTURES FRANÇAISES Association des Amis des Archives Françaises, 1952
12 VILLES D’ ALGÉRIE – ALGER – N°62 – Alger aux époques phénicienne et romaine DOCUMENTS ALGÉRIENS, 1952
13 REVUE HISTORIQUE DE L' ARMÉE Numéro spécial ALGÉRIE - 9 ème année - N° 2 - Tome premier, 1953
15 LA VILLA ABD-EL-TIF ANGELI Louis - Eugène Édition de l’ Office Algérien d’ Action Économique et Touristique Alger, 1957
16 LA VIE ET L' OEUVRE DU CONSEIL GENERAL DU DÉPARTEMENT D'ALGER - 5 décembre 1858 - 6 décembre 1956 Jean FILIPPI Imprimerie Nord-africaine, 1958
17 LE TRÉSOR DE TÉNÈS Jacques HEURGON Arts et métiers graphiques – Paris

18 ALGER-GUIDE DU GRAND ALGER (avec plan d’ Alger)
19 HISTOIRE DE L'ALGÉRIE Sous la direction de Louis MOUILLESEAUX Les Productions de Paris, 1962
21 HISTOIRE DE L’ ALGÉRIE – Textes de Jean Lassus, Georges Marçais, Léo Barbes, Louis Mouilleseaux, Pierre Boyer et Jean Farian Jean LASSUS Les Productions de Paris, 1962
22 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE CONTEMPORAINE - La conquête et les débuts de la colonisation. (1827 - 1871) Charles - André JULIEN Presses Universitaires de France,

23 MILIANA ET SON PATRON SAYYID-I AHMAD B. YUSUF Mohammed HADJ-SADOK Office des publications universitaires, 1964
24 ALGER FUT A LUI (le maréchal de Bourmont) Pierre SERVAL Calman-Lévy, 1965
25 DICTIONNAIRE DES MARINS CÉLÈBRES des temps lointains à nos jours. Jean RIVERAIN Librairie Larousse, 1967
27 AFFRONTEMENTS CULTURELS DANS L' ALGÉRIE COLONIALE Écoles, médecines, religion. 1830-1880 Yvonne TURIN Librairie François Maspero - Ouvrage publié avec le concours du C.R.N.S. 1971
28 ALGER Guide et Renseignements pratiques S.N.E.D Alger, 1971
29 MAGHREB – TUNISIE – ALGÉRIE – MAROC Henri DE LA BASTIDE Horizons de France, Paris, 1973
30 L' ARCHITECTURE ALGÉRIENNE Collection «Art et Culture » Ministère de l’ Information et de la Culture Diffusion SNED, 1974
32 L' ALGÉRIE AUJOURD'HUI Jean HUREAU Editions Jeune Afrique, 1974
33 MAGHREB - Tunisie Algérie Maroc Henri de la BASTIDE Horizons de France, 1974
34 LES MOSQUEES EN ALGÉRIE Collection « Art et Culture » - Ministère de l'Information et de la Culture - Alger, 1974
35 EL DJAZAÏR Collection « Art et Culture » - Ministère de l'Information et de la Culture - Alger, 1974
36 HISTOIRE DE L'AFRIQUE DU NORD - Des origines à la conquête arabe Charles-André JULIEN Payot, 1975
39 CORRESPONDANCE DES DEYS D'ALGER - Tomes I et II Eugène PLANTET Editions Bouslama, Tunis, 1981
41 LES ROIS D'ALGER Roland BACRI Grasset, 1983
42 LES ARABES – Histoire et civilisation des Arabes et du monde musulman des origines à la chute du royaume de Grenade racontées par les témoins. – Auzou – Histoire ancienne des peuples Marc BERGE Éditions Lidis, Paris, 1983
43 NOUS LES FRÈRES BARBEROUSSE corsaires et rois d'Alger Jean-Louis BELACHEMI Fayard, 1984
44 PARURES ET BIJOUX DES FEMMES D’ ALGÉRIE Wassyla TAMZALI Entreprise algérienne de presse – Dessain et Torla,1984
47 LE MIROIR Aperçu historique et statistique sur la Régence d’ Alger H.KHODJA La Bibliothèque arabe – Sindbad,

48 CE QUE LA CULTURE DOIT AUX ARABES D'ESPAGNE Juan VERNET, traduit de l'espagnol par Gabriel Martinez Gros La Bibliothèque arabe - Sindbad,

49 LA CASBAH D'ALGER - Gestion urbaine et vide social Djaffar LESBET Office des Publications universitaires, 1985
50 ALGER, TU CONNAIS ? – (livre pour enfants) Françoise GERMAIN-ROBIN Doc. images, éditions La Farandole,


52 L’ OASIS DE BOU-SAADA Youssef NACIB Entreprise algérienne de presse,

53 HISTOIRE DE LA MARINE ALGÉRIENNE Moulay BELHAMISSI Entreprise Nationale du Livre, Alger, 1986
54 HISTOIRE, CULTURE ET SOCIÉTÉ Mostefa LACHERAF - Abdelkader DJEGHLOUL Centre Culturel Algérien, 1986
Les Nouvelles éditions algériennes,

57 L' URBANISME ET L' ARCHITECTURE D'ALGER - APERÇU CRITIQUE J.J. DELUZ Office de Publications Universitaires - Alger, 1988
59 PALAIS ET DEMEURES D'ALGER à la période ottomane Lucien GOLVIN Office des Publications Universitaires, 1988
60 LA CASBAH D'ALGER, et le site créa la ville André RAVEREAU Éditions Sindbad, 1989
61 LA CIVILISATION DES ARABES - Images et traditions – Gustave LE BON Éditions de la Fontaine du Roy – Paris, 1990
62 ALGÉRIE. PASSE, PRÉSENT ET DEVENIR Recueil de Conférences Centre Culturel Algérien, 1990
63 L' ALGÉRIE AUTREFOIS, images retrouvées de la vie quotidienne Marie-Claude et Jean-Louis HEBRARD Horvath, 1990
65 LA CASBAH d'ALGER aux sources du souvenir Maurice CHEVALY Autres Temps, 1992
66 ESCLAVE A ALGER - Récit de la captivité de Joao Mascarenhas (1621-1626) Traduit du portugais et présenté par Paul TESSIER Éditions Chandeigne - ouvrage publié la premiere fois en 1627,

67 ABD EL KADER Smaïl AOULI - Ramdane REDJALA - Philippe ZOUMMEROFF Édition Fayard, 1994
68 ALGER - La capitale de l'Algérie au début du siècle Alain SEBE L' Harmattan, 1994
69 ARCHIVES DE L' ALGÉRIE Jacques Borgé et Nicolas Viasnoff Editions Michèle Trinckvel, 1995
70 DICTIONNAIRE DES SYMBOLES MUSULMANS - Rites, mystique et civilisation CHEBEL Malek Albin Michel, 1995
71 ALGER LA MÉMOIRE Mohamed MESSIKH Paris Méditerranée, 1997
72 ALGER - Histoire et Capitale de destin national Larbi ICHEBOUDENE Casbah Editions, 1997
73 C' EST ARRIVE... LA BAS André GILLE Les Presses du Midi, 1997
74 DICTIONNAIRE DE L’ ISLAM religion et civilisation
Encyclopaedia Universalis, 1997
75 LES CORSAIRES EN MÉDITERRANÉE Salvatore BONO Editions Paris - Méditerranée,1998
77 BUGEAUD Édouard de LAMAZE H.Lardanchet - Lyon, 1998
78 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE Pierre MONTAGNON Editions Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet

79 MOSAÏQUES DES EAUX EN ALGÉRIE- Un langage mythologique des pierres Sabah FERDI - Photographies : Ali MAROC Régie Sud Méditerranée, 1998
81 ALGER 1860-1939 - Le modèle ambigu du triomphe colonial Collection Mémoires dirigée par Jean-Jacques JORDI et Jean-Louis PLANCHE, 1999
82 ALGER 1940-1962 - Une ville en guerre Collection Mémoires dirigée par Jean-Jacques JORDI et Jean-Louis PLANCHE, 1999
83 MIENNE CASBAH tes légendes et tes secrets Gravures de Louis FONTUGNE Textes choisis par M.L. MAOUGAL Synergy - Édit Com, 1999
84 LA CASBAH D'ALGER Paul GUION Publisud, 1999
85 ALGER ET SES PEINTRES - 1830-1960 Marion VIDAL-BUE Paris Méditerranée, 2000
86 LA GLOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE - Écrivains et photographes de Flaubert à Camus Elizabeth FECHNER Calman-Lévy, 2000
87 LES CORSAIRES BARBARESQUES - La fin d'une épopée 1800-1820 Daniel PANZAC C.N.R.S Éditions, 2000
88 LE PORT D'ALGER Patrick RENAUDOT Éditions du Rocher, 2000
89 LA CASBAH D'ALGER- Gestion urbaine et vide social Djaffar LESBET Office des Publications Universitaires, 2000
90 THE BRITISH IN ALGIERS - 1585 - 2000 Osman BENCHERIF R S M Communication, 2001
91 A LA RENCONTRE DU MAGHREB Akram B. ELLYAS La découverte - Institut du Monde Arabe, 2001
93 LES BARBARESQUES - La course et la guerre en Méditerranée XIVème-XVIème siècle Jacques HEERS Pour l'histoire - Perrin, 2001
94 RECHERCHES SUR L'ALGÉRIE A L' ÉPOQUE OTTOMANE - Tome I - Monnaies, pris et revenus 1520-1830 Lemnouar MEROUCHE Editions Bouchène, 2002
95 AMÉRICAINS ET BARBARESQUES 1776-1824 Émile DUPUY Editions Bouchène, 2002
96 CORSAIRES ET MARCHANDS -Les relations entre Alger et les Pays-Bas 1604-1830 Gérard VAN KRIEKEN Editions Bouchène, 2002
97 BUGEAUD ET L' ALGÉRIE Général AZAN Édité par le Petit parisien
98 VIVRE ET MOURIR EN ALGER - L'Algérie ottomane aux XVIème-XVIIème siècles : Un destin confisqué Farid KHIARI L'Harmattan, 2002
100 PETITS GUIDES PRATIQUES DE L' ALGÉRIE – II - Les environs d'Alger. René GARNIER Distribué par le Comité Algérien de Propagande et d’ Hivernage