Wednesday, August 29, 2007

Gazelle

Emir Abdelkader Mosque, Constantine

Mosque, Che Guevara boulevard (Algiers)

Sunset on Bab El Oued, Algiers

Tourism

Today, the culture and traditions of Algeria reflect the richness of its Berber, Arab, Mediterranean, African, and Muslim heritage. The traveler can enjoy cave paintings in the Tassili left by prehistoric tribes, Roman ruins at Djemila, Timgad, Cherchell and Tipaza. Turkish style buildings in the places such as Casbah of Algiers, Tuareg tribes who have retained their Berber traditions, European architecture in large cities and small towns, all amid resplendent mosques and beautiful white buildings. The country's coastline along the Mediterranean Sea features endless white sand or pebble beaches, with little coves, and small seaports, just as it offers a variety of modern amenities in beautiful beach resorts. The cities of Algiers, Oran, Bedjaia, or Annaba are all special sights to behold each with their own distinct charm.
Go further south to Ghardaia, Djanet, Timimoun and Tamanrasset, and you will experience the immensity of the Sahara desert and the beauty of its never-ending dunes, the peaceful havens of its oases and the legendary hospitality of its populations, and the indelible memory left by its sunsets.

Cuisine

Mirroring its culture, Algeria's cuisine is rich and diverse. It offers a mixture which reflects the variety of the country's landscape. From fish dishes featured in cities and towns along the long Mediterranean coastline, to Berber dishes in the High Plateaus and the mountain regions of Kabylia and the Aures, the cuisine displays great varieties of dishes such as couscous (Algeria has several different types), sweet and savory tajines (stews), and delicate and flavorful pastries.
Algerian households typically eat dishes made with lamb, poultry, or beef and fresh vegetables and herbs. The population is also very fond of grilled meats, such as the world-renowned Merguez (a spicy lamb sausage) or the equally delicious but more elaborate Mechoui (spit-roasted whole lamb with herbs and spices), generally reserved for family celebrations.

Food in Algeria

1 GEOGRAPHIC SETTING AND ENVIRONMENT

Algeria is located in North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea. The fertile and mountainous northern region is home to the olive tree, cork oak, and vast evergreen forests where boars and jackals roam. Fig, agave, and various palm trees grow in the warmer areas. The grape vine is native to the coastal plain. Central Algeria consists of the High Plateaus that contain salt marshes and dry or shallow salt lakes. The land becomes more arid (dry) the farther south one travels, eventually becoming the Sahara Desert. Roughly 80 percent of the country is desert, where vegetation is sparse. Camels are widely used in this arid region, although jackals, rabbits, scorpions, and snakes also occupy the deserts.

The coastal region has a typical Mediterranean climate—pleasant nearly year round, with winter temperatures rarely falling below freezing (32°F). Rainfall is also abundant along the coast. Farther inland, higher altitudes receive considerable frost and occasional snow. Little or no rainfall occurs throughout the summer months in this region. In the Sahara Desert, rainfall is unpredictable and unevenly distributed.

2 HISTORY AND FOOD

Algerian cuisine traces its roots to various countries and ancient cultures that once ruled, visited, or traded with the country. Berber tribesmen were one of the country's earliest inhabitants. Their arrival, which may extend as far back as 30,000 B.C., marked the beginning of wheat cultivation, smen (aged, cooked butter), and fruit consumption, such as dates. The introduction of semolina wheat by the Carthaginians (who occupied much of northern Africa) led the Berbers to first create couscous, Algeria's national dish. The Romans, who eventually took over Algeria, also grew various grains. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Algeria ranked among the top ten importers of grain (such as wheat and barley) in the world, according to ArabicNews.com.

Muslim Arabs invaded Algeria in the 600s, bringing exotic spices such as saffron, nutmeg, ginger, cloves, and cinnamon from the Spice Islands of eastern Indonesia. They also introduced the Islamic religion to the Berbers. Islam continues to influence almost every aspect of an Algerian's life, including the diet.

Olives (and olive oil) and fruits such as oranges, plums, and peaches were brought across the Mediterranean from Spain during an invasion in the 1500s. Sweet pastries from the Turkish Ottomans and tea from European traders also made their way into Algerian cuisine around this time.

In the early 1800s, Algerians were driven off their own lands and forced to surrender their crops and farmland to the French. The French introduced their diet and culture to the Algerians, including their well-known loaves of bread and the establishment of sidewalk cafés. This French legacy remains evident in Algerian culture.

Tomatoes, potatoes, zucchini, and chilies, significant to Algerian local cuisine, were brought over from the New World.

3 FOODS OF THE ALGERIANS

Traditional Algerian cuisine, a colorful combination of Berber, Turkish, French, and Arab tastes, can be either extremely mild or packed with flavorful seasonings. Ginger, saffron, onion, garlic, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, parsley, and mint are essential in any Algerian pantry.

Couscous, the national dish, is often mistaken as a grain itself, rather than pasta. The pasta dough is a mixture of water and coarse, grainy semolina wheat particles. The dough is then crumbled through a sieve to create tiny pellets. Algerians prefer lamb, chicken, or fish to be placed on a bed of warm couscous, along with cooked vegetables such as carrots, chickpeas, and tomatoes, and spicy stews. Couscous can also be used in desserts by adding a variety of ingredients, such as cinnamon, nutmeg, dates, and figs.

No Algerian meal would be complete without bread, normally a long, French loaf. Similar to Middle Eastern customs, bread is often used to scoop food off of a plate or to soak up a spicy sauce or stew. More traditional Berber families usually eat flat, wheat bread.

Mechoui, a roasted whole lamb cooked on an outdoor spit, is usually prepared when a large group of people gathers together. The animal is seasoned with herb butter so the skin is crispy and the meat inside is tender and juicy. Bread and various dried fruits and vegetables, including dates (whose trees can thrive in the country's Sahara desert), often accompany mechoui.

Beverages such as mint tea are a favorite among all North African countries. Tea is usually offered to visiting guests, though coffee flavored with cardamom is another option. With the abundance of fruits year round, fresh juices are plentiful and children tend to favor apricot nectar. Sharbats, fruit or nut-flavored milk drinks, are popular with all ages, including sahlab, a sweet, milky drink. Traditional Berbers, in particular, prefer drinks made from goat milk, although cow milk is now available. Basbousa (Egyptian semolina cake), tamina (roasted semolina with butter and honey), and sweetened couscous are just a few sweets enjoyed by the Algerians.

4 FOOD FOR RELIGIOUS AND HOLIDAY CELEBRATIONS

The overwhelming majority of Algerians, about 99 percent, follow the beliefs of Islam, the country's official religion (Christians and Jews make up only 1 percent of the population).

The Algerian observance of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year, is the most celebrated of all holidays. During the monthlong observance, Muslims are required to fast (avoid consuming food and drink) between sunrise and sunset, although young, growing children and pregnant women may be allowed to eat a small amount. At the end of each day during Ramadan, sometimes as late as midnight, families join together for a feast. French loaves or wheat bread and a pot of hot mint tea will likely serve as refreshments.

The meal marking the end of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr, is the most important feast. It almost always begins with soup or stew. Lamb or beef is most often served as the main dish, although families living close to the Mediterranean in northern Algeria enjoy a variety of seafood. In most Algerian homes, a bowl of fresh fruit is placed on the table at the end of the meal. Traditionally, each person is responsible for peeling and slicing his or her own fruit. However, on special occasions such as Eid al-Fitr, the host will often serve the fruit already peeled, sliced, and flavored (most often with cinnamon and various citrus juices).

5 MEALTIME CUSTOMS

Arabs are hospitable and encourage family and friends to share their food. Even an unexpected visitor will be greeted warmly and offered coffee (often flavored with cardamom), while the females of the household prepare the meal. Cooking continues to be considered a woman's duty, as it has in the past. Historically, recipes and cooking customs have been passed down through generations by word of mouth when women gather together to prepare meals.

All meals (normally three a day) are leisurely and sociable, although there are varying degrees of structure and etiquette (polite behavior). Seated at a low table (tabla or mida), food is traditionally eaten with the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger of the right hand. To use four or five fingers is considered to be a sign of over-eating and should be avoided. The dining atmosphere in a middle class family may be a bit more elegant. A servant or young family member might visit each individual at the table, offering a bowl of perfumed water to diners for washing their hands before the meal is eaten.

The country's capital, Algiers, and popular coastal towns tend to have a wide variety of restaurants, particularly French, Italian, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Southern Algeria is less populated, and is farther from Algiers and the Mediterranean waters, where seafood and the hustle and bustle of trade are plentiful. Menus usually begin with either a soup or salad, followed by roast meat (usually lamb or beef) or fish as a main course, with fresh fruit commonly completing the meal. In the towns, souks (markets) or street stalls offer take-home products, such as spicy brochettes (kebabs) on French bread for those on the run. With the exception of an occasional fast food burger, school lunches are often such traditional foods as couscous, dried fruit, stews, and sweet fruit drinks.

Books

Brennan, Georgeanne. The Mediterranean Herb Cookbook. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2000.

Mackley, Lesley. The Book of North African Cooking. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group, 1998.

Walden, Hilaire. North African Cooking. Edison, New Jersey: Quintet Publishing Limited, 1995.

Webb, Lois Sinaiko. Holidays of the World Cookbook for Students. Phoenix, AZ: The Oryx Press, 1995.

Fishing boats, Algiers

Emir Abdelkader Place, Algiers

Mallow city

Poppies field in Spring time

Notre Dame d'Afrique, Alger

A Pivotal State

Algeria does occupy an important geostrategic space, and that, taken together with its resources, probably does place it in contention for being considered a pivotal state. Its proximity to Europe, as well as its position as a major Arab state, mean that what happens in Algeria will have repercussions beyond its borders. Although Algeria may no longer serve as a model to others, events in Algeria could still have regional consequences, both negative and positive.
In North Africa and the Middle East, events in Algeria are followed closely.
...Events in Algeria can influence, for better or worse, a wide range of countries in the Middle East and Europe, both regions of importance to the United States; and Algeria is likely to be a major source of energy for Europe in the future, with all that implies for investment opportunities in Algeria for Western companies. On balance, the United States and Europe have every reason to hope that Algeria will follow a stable, positive course in the future and should be prepared to help it where possible.
...If Algeria is as important as we have maintained, it certainly makes sense to try to raise the level of political dialogue (between Algiers and Washington).

By William B. Quandt
in "The Pivotal States: A New Framework for U.S. Policy in the Developing World"
Robert Chase, Emily Hill, Paul Kennedy, Editors
W.W. Norton & Company , New York, 1999.

Les Corsaires de la Regence d'Alger

***CORSAIRES***

I L' ORIGINE DE LA PIRATERIE remonte à l'ANTIQUITÉ.
II Les CORSAIRES barbaresques pratiquent la COURSE pour :
  • rançonner les PUISSANCES CHRÉTIENNES.
  • avoir la maîtrise du commerce des mers.
  • faire la traite des blancs en peuplant d'ESCLAVES français, italiens, américains les BAGNES D'ALGER de TRIPOLI, TUNIS et du MAROC.
  • Envoyé les femmes dans des Harems d'AFRIQUE, de CONSTANTINOPLE et d'ASIE.

  • Pendant les 3 siècles de présence turque à ALGER, la FRANCE, l'ANGLETERRE, et d'autres pays d'EUROPE s'efforcent d'acheter, au péril de leur dignité, la faveur de la protection des RAÏS ou du DEY, en leur fournissant du matériel. Chacun espérant que les CORSAIRES s'en servent pour nuire à l'autre.
  • Au début du XVIIème siècle, la FLOTTE ALGÉRIENNE se compose de plus de 40 gros vaisseaux et d'autant d'autres embarcations de moindre grandeur. Ce qui est considérable en comparaison de la marine des pays d'EUROPE.

III CORSAIRES CÉLÈBRES
  • Les frères AROUDJ Bras d'Acier et KHEIR EDDINE BARBEROUSSE
  • ARABADJI
  • CACCHI, le diable
  • DALI MAMI
  • DJAFFAR RAÏS, le Dieppois
  • DRAGUT le charpentier, gouverne TRIPOLI de 1551 jusqu'à sa mort en 1565.
  • FARET BEY
  • HADJ MOHAMMED, dey en 1671
  • HAMIDOU, au XIXème
  • HASSAN CALFAT
  • HASSAN VENEZIANO, l'italien
  • HASSAN PORTUGES
  • MAMI CORSO
  • MAMI NAPOLITANO
  • MOURAD, renégat flamand du XVIème, il donne son nom à BIRMANDRES : Bir Mourad Raïs
  • PICCINI, renégat vénitien, devenu ALI BITCHIN, chef de la TAÏFA de 1621 à 1645
  • SALAH RAÏS, tête de Feu
  • SINAM, le borgne

CORSAIRES CHRÉTIENS

CORSAIRES PACHAS

  • EULDJ ALI, le teigneux, calabrais
  • HASSAN CORSO
  • HASSAN VENIZIANO
  • ALI MAMI ou MAMI ARNAUTE (d'ALBANIE), devient Pacha en 1583
  • MEZZO MORTO, dey de 1683 à 1688.

BIBLIOGRAPHIE

HISTOIRE DES PIRATES et CORSAIRES de l' OCÉAN et de la MÉDITERRANÉE DEPUIS LEUR ORIGINE JUSQUE A NOS JOURS – Tome I, II, et III, P. CHRISTIAN
AUTOUR DE LA MÉDITERRANÉE - LES COTES BARBARESQUES - DE TUNIS A ALGER
Marius BERNARD

EL EULDJ ALI CAPTIF DES BARBARESQUES
Choukri KHODJA

L' HÉROÏQUE MISÈRE DE MIGUEL DE CERVANTÈS, ESCLAVE BARBARESQUE
Martial DOUEL

LES BARBARESQUES
Pierre HUBAC

NOUS LES FRÈRES BARBEROUSSE corsaires et rois d'Alger
Jean-Louis BELACHEMI

ESCLAVE A ALGER - Récit de la captivité de Joao Mascarenhas (1621-1626)
Traduit du portugais et présenté par Paul TESSIER

LES CORSAIRES EN MÉDITERRANÉE
Salvatore BONO

LES CORSAIRES BARBARESQUES - La fin d'une épopée 1800-1820, Daniel PANZAC
LES BARBARESQUES - La course et la guerre en Méditerranée XIVème-XVIème siècle
Jacques HEERS

VIVRE ET MOURIR EN ALGER - L'Algérie ottomane aux XVIème-XVIIème siècles : Un destin confisqué,Farid KHIARI

Bibliographie sur l'Algerie-1950-2002

***BIBLIOGRAPHIE ***


1 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE Gabriel ESQUER Presses Universitaires de France
1950

2 LE MUSÉE STÉPHANE GSELL - Musée des Antiquités et d'Art Musulman d'Alger Georges MARCAIS Gouvernement Général, 1950
3 CAHIERS CHARLES DE FOUCAULD - LE SAHARA FRANÇAIS – 2ème volume Charles DE FOUCAULD 1950
4 HISTOIRE DE FRANCE ET D' ALGÉRIE A.BONNEFIN & M.MARCHAND Librairie HACHETTE, 1950
5 ALGÉRIE - TUNISIE
GUIDES BLEUS, 1950
6 LA CASBAH D'ALGER Eugène PASQUALI Mémoire de fin d'études, 1951
7 HISTOIRE DE L'AFRIQUE DU NORD - De la conquête arabe à 1830 Charles-André JULIEN Payot, 1952
8 LE BARDO - Musée d'Ethnographie et de Préhistoire d'Alger Imprimerie officielle à Alger, 1952
9 LA VENUS DE CHERCHELL Georges MARCAIS Arts et métiers graphiques Paris, 1952
10 LES PRÉFECTURES FRANÇAISES Association des Amis des Archives Françaises, 1952
11 POUR LA DÉFENSE DU VIEIL ET DU NOUVEL ALGER Les Amis d'Alger, 1952
12 VILLES D’ ALGÉRIE – ALGER – N°62 – Alger aux époques phénicienne et romaine DOCUMENTS ALGÉRIENS, 1952
13 REVUE HISTORIQUE DE L' ARMÉE Numéro spécial ALGÉRIE - 9 ème année - N° 2 - Tome premier, 1953
14 ALGÉRIE - TUNISIE
GUIDES BLEUS, 1955
15 LA VILLA ABD-EL-TIF ANGELI Louis - Eugène Édition de l’ Office Algérien d’ Action Économique et Touristique Alger, 1957
16 LA VIE ET L' OEUVRE DU CONSEIL GENERAL DU DÉPARTEMENT D'ALGER - 5 décembre 1858 - 6 décembre 1956 Jean FILIPPI Imprimerie Nord-africaine, 1958
17 LE TRÉSOR DE TÉNÈS Jacques HEURGON Arts et métiers graphiques – Paris
1958

18 ALGER-GUIDE DU GRAND ALGER (avec plan d’ Alger)
1961
19 HISTOIRE DE L'ALGÉRIE Sous la direction de Louis MOUILLESEAUX Les Productions de Paris, 1962
20 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE ILLUSTRÉE Marc LAMUNIERE Édition Rencontre, 1962
21 HISTOIRE DE L’ ALGÉRIE – Textes de Jean Lassus, Georges Marçais, Léo Barbes, Louis Mouilleseaux, Pierre Boyer et Jean Farian Jean LASSUS Les Productions de Paris, 1962
22 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE CONTEMPORAINE - La conquête et les débuts de la colonisation. (1827 - 1871) Charles - André JULIEN Presses Universitaires de France,
1964

23 MILIANA ET SON PATRON SAYYID-I AHMAD B. YUSUF Mohammed HADJ-SADOK Office des publications universitaires, 1964
24 ALGER FUT A LUI (le maréchal de Bourmont) Pierre SERVAL Calman-Lévy, 1965
25 DICTIONNAIRE DES MARINS CÉLÈBRES des temps lointains à nos jours. Jean RIVERAIN Librairie Larousse, 1967
26 LE MAGHREB AVANT LA PRISE D'ALGER Lucette VALENSI Flammarion, 1969
27 AFFRONTEMENTS CULTURELS DANS L' ALGÉRIE COLONIALE Écoles, médecines, religion. 1830-1880 Yvonne TURIN Librairie François Maspero - Ouvrage publié avec le concours du C.R.N.S. 1971
28 ALGER Guide et Renseignements pratiques S.N.E.D Alger, 1971
29 MAGHREB – TUNISIE – ALGÉRIE – MAROC Henri DE LA BASTIDE Horizons de France, Paris, 1973
30 L' ARCHITECTURE ALGÉRIENNE Collection «Art et Culture » Ministère de l’ Information et de la Culture Diffusion SNED, 1974
31 LES MOSQUÉES DE LA PÉRIODE TURQUE A ALGER Rachid DOKALI SNED - ALGER, 1974
32 L' ALGÉRIE AUJOURD'HUI Jean HUREAU Editions Jeune Afrique, 1974
33 MAGHREB - Tunisie Algérie Maroc Henri de la BASTIDE Horizons de France, 1974
34 LES MOSQUEES EN ALGÉRIE Collection « Art et Culture » - Ministère de l'Information et de la Culture - Alger, 1974
35 EL DJAZAÏR Collection « Art et Culture » - Ministère de l'Information et de la Culture - Alger, 1974
36 HISTOIRE DE L'AFRIQUE DU NORD - Des origines à la conquête arabe Charles-André JULIEN Payot, 1975
37 HISTOIRES ALGERIENNES Daniel SAINT-HAMONT Robert Laffont, 1979
38 LA TÉNÉBREUSE HISTOIRE DE LA PRISE D'ALGER Pierre SERVAL La Table Ronde, 1980
39 CORRESPONDANCE DES DEYS D'ALGER - Tomes I et II Eugène PLANTET Editions Bouslama, Tunis, 1981
40 L'ALGERIE DES FRANCAIS Pierre LAFFONT Bordas, 1981
41 LES ROIS D'ALGER Roland BACRI Grasset, 1983
42 LES ARABES – Histoire et civilisation des Arabes et du monde musulman des origines à la chute du royaume de Grenade racontées par les témoins. – Auzou – Histoire ancienne des peuples Marc BERGE Éditions Lidis, Paris, 1983
43 NOUS LES FRÈRES BARBEROUSSE corsaires et rois d'Alger Jean-Louis BELACHEMI Fayard, 1984
44 PARURES ET BIJOUX DES FEMMES D’ ALGÉRIE Wassyla TAMZALI Entreprise algérienne de presse – Dessain et Torla,1984
45 VILLES D' ALGÉRIE AU XIXème siècle CENTRE CULTUREL ALGÉRIEN, Paris, 1984
46 LA VÉRITÉ SUR L' EXPÉDITION D'ALGER Amar HAMDANI Éditions Balland, 1985
47 LE MIROIR Aperçu historique et statistique sur la Régence d’ Alger H.KHODJA La Bibliothèque arabe – Sindbad,
1985

48 CE QUE LA CULTURE DOIT AUX ARABES D'ESPAGNE Juan VERNET, traduit de l'espagnol par Gabriel Martinez Gros La Bibliothèque arabe - Sindbad,
1985

49 LA CASBAH D'ALGER - Gestion urbaine et vide social Djaffar LESBET Office des Publications universitaires, 1985
50 ALGER, TU CONNAIS ? – (livre pour enfants) Françoise GERMAIN-ROBIN Doc. images, éditions La Farandole,
1985

51 LÉON L’ AFRICAIN Amin MAALOUF J-C Lattés,
1986

52 L’ OASIS DE BOU-SAADA Youssef NACIB Entreprise algérienne de presse,
1986

53 HISTOIRE DE LA MARINE ALGÉRIENNE Moulay BELHAMISSI Entreprise Nationale du Livre, Alger, 1986
54 HISTOIRE, CULTURE ET SOCIÉTÉ Mostefa LACHERAF - Abdelkader DJEGHLOUL Centre Culturel Algérien, 1986
55 ALGÉRIE - TUNISIE
GUIDES BLEUS, 1986
56 GUIDE TOURISTIQUE D'ALGER
Les Nouvelles éditions algériennes,
1987

57 L' URBANISME ET L' ARCHITECTURE D'ALGER - APERÇU CRITIQUE J.J. DELUZ Office de Publications Universitaires - Alger, 1988
58 LES CAPTIFS ALGERIENS ET L'EUROPE CHRETIENNE Moulay BELHAMISSI Entreprise Nationale du Livre, 1988
59 PALAIS ET DEMEURES D'ALGER à la période ottomane Lucien GOLVIN Office des Publications Universitaires, 1988
60 LA CASBAH D'ALGER, et le site créa la ville André RAVEREAU Éditions Sindbad, 1989
61 LA CIVILISATION DES ARABES - Images et traditions – Gustave LE BON Éditions de la Fontaine du Roy – Paris, 1990
62 ALGÉRIE. PASSE, PRÉSENT ET DEVENIR Recueil de Conférences Centre Culturel Algérien, 1990
63 L' ALGÉRIE AUTREFOIS, images retrouvées de la vie quotidienne Marie-Claude et Jean-Louis HEBRARD Horvath, 1990
64 ESQUISSES ANECDOTIQUES ET HISTORIQUES DU VIEIL ALGER Fernand ARNAUDIES Outremers - Éditions A.Barthélémy, 1990
65 LA CASBAH d'ALGER aux sources du souvenir Maurice CHEVALY Autres Temps, 1992
66 ESCLAVE A ALGER - Récit de la captivité de Joao Mascarenhas (1621-1626) Traduit du portugais et présenté par Paul TESSIER Éditions Chandeigne - ouvrage publié la premiere fois en 1627,
1993

67 ABD EL KADER Smaïl AOULI - Ramdane REDJALA - Philippe ZOUMMEROFF Édition Fayard, 1994
68 ALGER - La capitale de l'Algérie au début du siècle Alain SEBE L' Harmattan, 1994
69 ARCHIVES DE L' ALGÉRIE Jacques Borgé et Nicolas Viasnoff Editions Michèle Trinckvel, 1995
70 DICTIONNAIRE DES SYMBOLES MUSULMANS - Rites, mystique et civilisation CHEBEL Malek Albin Michel, 1995
71 ALGER LA MÉMOIRE Mohamed MESSIKH Paris Méditerranée, 1997
72 ALGER - Histoire et Capitale de destin national Larbi ICHEBOUDENE Casbah Editions, 1997
73 C' EST ARRIVE... LA BAS André GILLE Les Presses du Midi, 1997
74 DICTIONNAIRE DE L’ ISLAM religion et civilisation
Encyclopaedia Universalis, 1997
75 LES CORSAIRES EN MÉDITERRANÉE Salvatore BONO Editions Paris - Méditerranée,1998
76 LA VILLE D'ALGER VERS LA FIN DU XVIIIème SIÈCLE Tal SHUVAL C.N.R.S Editions, 1998
77 BUGEAUD Édouard de LAMAZE H.Lardanchet - Lyon, 1998
78 HISTOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE Pierre MONTAGNON Editions Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet
1998

79 MOSAÏQUES DES EAUX EN ALGÉRIE- Un langage mythologique des pierres Sabah FERDI - Photographies : Ali MAROC Régie Sud Méditerranée, 1998
80 LA VÉRITÉ SUR L' EXPÉDITION D'ALGER Amar HAMDANI Balland, 1998
81 ALGER 1860-1939 - Le modèle ambigu du triomphe colonial Collection Mémoires dirigée par Jean-Jacques JORDI et Jean-Louis PLANCHE, 1999
82 ALGER 1940-1962 - Une ville en guerre Collection Mémoires dirigée par Jean-Jacques JORDI et Jean-Louis PLANCHE, 1999
83 MIENNE CASBAH tes légendes et tes secrets Gravures de Louis FONTUGNE Textes choisis par M.L. MAOUGAL Synergy - Édit Com, 1999
84 LA CASBAH D'ALGER Paul GUION Publisud, 1999
85 ALGER ET SES PEINTRES - 1830-1960 Marion VIDAL-BUE Paris Méditerranée, 2000
86 LA GLOIRE DE L' ALGÉRIE - Écrivains et photographes de Flaubert à Camus Elizabeth FECHNER Calman-Lévy, 2000
87 LES CORSAIRES BARBARESQUES - La fin d'une épopée 1800-1820 Daniel PANZAC C.N.R.S Éditions, 2000
88 LE PORT D'ALGER Patrick RENAUDOT Éditions du Rocher, 2000
89 LA CASBAH D'ALGER- Gestion urbaine et vide social Djaffar LESBET Office des Publications Universitaires, 2000
90 THE BRITISH IN ALGIERS - 1585 - 2000 Osman BENCHERIF R S M Communication, 2001
91 A LA RENCONTRE DU MAGHREB Akram B. ELLYAS La découverte - Institut du Monde Arabe, 2001
92 ALGER PHOTOGRAPHIÉE AU XIX ème SIÈCLE Texte de Malek ALLOULA Marval, 2001
93 LES BARBARESQUES - La course et la guerre en Méditerranée XIVème-XVIème siècle Jacques HEERS Pour l'histoire - Perrin, 2001
94 RECHERCHES SUR L'ALGÉRIE A L' ÉPOQUE OTTOMANE - Tome I - Monnaies, pris et revenus 1520-1830 Lemnouar MEROUCHE Editions Bouchène, 2002
95 AMÉRICAINS ET BARBARESQUES 1776-1824 Émile DUPUY Editions Bouchène, 2002
96 CORSAIRES ET MARCHANDS -Les relations entre Alger et les Pays-Bas 1604-1830 Gérard VAN KRIEKEN Editions Bouchène, 2002
97 BUGEAUD ET L' ALGÉRIE Général AZAN Édité par le Petit parisien
98 VIVRE ET MOURIR EN ALGER - L'Algérie ottomane aux XVIème-XVIIème siècles : Un destin confisqué Farid KHIARI L'Harmattan, 2002
99 ALGÉRIE & TOURISME GOUVERNEMENT GENERAL DE L’ ALGÉRIE, Baconnier
100 PETITS GUIDES PRATIQUES DE L' ALGÉRIE – II - Les environs d'Alger. René GARNIER Distribué par le Comité Algérien de Propagande et d’ Hivernage
101 AU PAYS DE SAINT AUGUSTIN ET AUX RIVES DU TAGE James CONDAMIN

102 BIBLIOGRAPHIE DES OUVRAGES IMPRIMES A ALGER DE 1830 A 1850 Hermann FIORI


Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Letter supporting Algeria's independence from U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy-1957

July 22, 1957

Dear Mr.Trey

I am very grateful to you for your expression of support with respect to my recent address concerning a settlement in Algeria. The criticisms which this speech incurred both at home and abroad were not unexpected, but they made favorable comment such as your own even more welcome.

I am more convinced than ever that this nation must face up to the situation in Algeria before it is too late. My main purpose in making this speech was to place this issue under fresh analysis and review especially in light of the fact that Algeria will be high on the U.N. agenda this Fall. Unquestionably the United States position, especially in relation to the Asian and African nations, is ambiguous so long as we denounce Soviet imperialism in Hungary and accept the French position in Algeria.

It was good to know that I have your support in this matter.

With every good wish.

Sincerely yours.

John F. Kennedy

Sunday, August 26, 2007

Algérie : une ambition de puissance régionale, selon « Le Monde »


Par Le Monde, le 09/07/2007

Avec ses réserves de change en augmentation constante grâce à la hausse du cours des hydrocarbures (90 milliards de dollars fin juin, soit 66 milliards d'euros), l'Algérie est courtisée comme jamais.

Américains, Russes, Européens, pays du Golfe et Asiatiques s'y bousculent pour tenter de rafler de fabuleux marchés. Après un long isolement dû à la "décennie de sang" (1992-2000), Alger a fini par retrouver sa place dans le concert des nations.

L'embargo de fait sur les ventes d'armes, plus ou moins appliqué par les Etats-Unis, l'Union européenne - la France en tête - et la Russie, semble loin à présent. L'Algérie n'a plus de mal à se procurer les armements qu'elle réclamait à cor et à cri, au motif qu'il lui est impossible de rétablir la sécurité sur l'ensemble de son territoire, notamment sur son immense frontière sud, avec un matériel obsolète. La voilà en train de se doter des moyens de devenir "la" puissance régionale, pourvue d'une défense à la mesure de sa dimension géographique, et de son statut de cinquième pays producteur mondial de gaz et de treizième producteur de pétrole. Un leadership qui ne manque pas d'inquiéter ses voisins, le Maroc surtout, mais aussi la Libye.

En matière de ventes d'armes, la visite à Alger du président russe Vladimir Poutine, en mars 2006, a constitué un tournant. Un contrat d'un montant d'environ 6,3 milliards de dollars a été finalisé à cette occasion. Moscou a conclu la vente de plusieurs dizaines d'avions de chasse et de combat, de batteries de défense antiaérienne dernier cri, de centaines de chars de combat, et de deux sous-marins. La livraison de ce matériel devrait s'étaler sur quatre ans.

Dans le "deal" conclu en 2006 avec le président Poutine, l'Algérie a obtenu l'effacement de sa dette auprès de la Russie. Un passif estimé à 4,7 milliards de dollars et qui représentait 25 % de la dette extérieure algérienne. Mais il ne s'agissait que de la première partie du "contrat du siècle" réalisé par la Russie avec Alger. A en croire la presse russe, un autre marché est en cours de négociation depuis mars, pour une valeur de 7 milliards de dollars : des chasseurs-bombardiers Soukhoï supplémentaires, des Mig 29, des chars et des systèmes antiaériens Pantsir. Egalement à l'ordre du jour : une frégate porte-hélicoptères - une première - et la construction de navires. Si ce second contrat est conclu, le montant global des ventes d'armes russes à l'Algérie s'élèvera donc à presque 14 milliards de dollars. Alger deviendrait ainsi le premier client de Moscou pour les ventes d'armes, dépassant l'Inde, la Chine et le Venezuela.

A l'époque de l'Union soviétique, la coopération entre Moscou et Alger dans le domaine militaire était importante - l'armée algérienne est d'ailleurs essentiellement équipée de matériel de l'ex-URSS - mais jamais, depuis l'époque soviétique, Moscou n'avait réalisé une opération d'une telle ampleur.

L'autre volet de la coopération algéro-russe concerne le gaz. En août 2006, le russe Gazprom et la Sonatrach ont conclu un accord concernant la prospection et l'extraction de gaz en Algérie, ainsi que la modernisation du réseau algérien de gazoducs. Selon le mensuel Arabies, les deux compagnies, fournisseurs incontournables du marché mondial, envisagent d'agir de concert pour préserver leurs intérêts. Cette entente préoccupe de nombreux pays européens, qui redoutent de voir apparaître une "OPEP du gaz".

Soucieuse de garder son indépendance, l'Algérie veille, quant à elle, à diversifier ses partenaires, tant sur le plan économique que politique. Les Etats-Unis ne manquent pas l'occasion, depuis deux ans, de souligner son "rôle important" à l'échelle régionale. Lutte antiterroriste, manoeuvres militaires conjointes, échanges de visites de haut rang, signature, le 9 juin à Alger, d'un protocole d'accord sur le nucléaire civil... Washington et Alger coopèrent activement.

Mais c'est dans le domaine énergétique que les Américains pèsent le plus. Ils sont le premier pays investisseur étranger en Algérie, avec 369 millions de dollars investis en 2006, essentiellement dans le secteur pétrolier. Ils sont aussi le premier client de l'Algérie (14 milliards de dollars d'achats, exclusivement des hydrocarbures).

Lors d'une visite aux Etats-Unis en 2006, Mohamed Bedjaoui, alors chef de la diplomatie algérienne, a lancé : "Face aux Etats-Unis, la France n'a pas le même poids en Algérie." Une petite phrase due en partie au froid qui caractérisait alors les relations franco-algériennes en raison de la polémique sur les "bienfaits" de la colonisation. Car, quoi qu'en disent les responsables algériens, les Français n'ont pas "laissé passer leur chance".

Si elle ne joue pas encore dans la même cour que les Etats-Unis et la Russie, la France est en train de rattraper le temps perdu. Elle reste le premier fournisseur de l'Algérie (4,3 milliards de dollars d'exportations en 2006, soit 20 % du marché) et devance toujours des pays comme l'Italie et la Chine.

Fait plus nouveau : depuis six ans, ses investissements en Algérie croissent de façon vertigineuse. En 2000, ils n'étaient que de 49 millions de dollars. En 2005, ils sont passés à 140 millions de dollars et en 2006, à 294 millions. La France est ainsi le second investisseur en Algérie, tous secteurs confondus (mais le premier investisseur, hors hydrocarbures), juste derrière les Etats-Unis, mais avant l'Espagne et l'Egypte.

De leur côté, les pays du Golfe, comme le Koweït, se montrent intéressés par des secteurs tels que les télécoms, la pétrochimie, l'hôtellerie, les services. Ces investissements directs étrangers (IDE) sont essentiels à l'Algérie pour lui permettre de faire décoller son économie, hors hydrocarbures, et régler son problème de chômage (75 % des inactifs ont moins de 30 ans).

Objet de toutes les convoitises, l'ancienne colonie française se sait promise à un bel avenir. Ses réserves de pétrole la placent au 3e rang des pays producteurs d'Afrique (après le Nigeria et la Libye). D'où, sans doute, l'empressement et la sollicitude des Etats-Unis...


Florence Beaugé, Le Monde

Thursday, August 23, 2007

The Twentieth Century in Algerian Art

The Twentieth Century in Algerian Art
Introduction by Ramón Tio Bellido, curator



Abdelhalim Hemche

+ zoom: click on photos


In the context of events organized on the occasion of the "Year of Algeria in France", it seemed essential to stage an exhibition that retraces the tracks of the history of modern and contemporary fine arts in Algeria. The exhibition aims at acquainting the public with Algerian artists and their works produced since the 1920s in an attempt to provide details of the particularities, biases, and specificities connected to that country.




Mohamed Temmam

Whilst taking into account the practice of four consecutive artistic generations, the selection of artworks is closely bound to the questions and problems posed by the relationship between the "model" role played by Western culture and the singular and "ethnic" cultures of the artists.

Even if the origins of Algerian art history are associated with the rebirth of the miniature under the tutelage of Mohamed Racim - whose work is not shown in this exhibition - pieces by Azouaou Mammeri, Abdelhalim Hemche, and Mohamed Temmam confirm attempts to appropriate elements of modern art, from Impressionism to Fauvism, and to develop a distinct iconographic language.

Baya

Mohamed Khadda

From the 1920s to the beginning of the fifties, this generation further embraces other more personal or autodidact proposals of which the best-known representative is Haddad Fatma Baya Mahieddine (Baya), who exhibited at the Galerie Aimé Maeght already in 1947.

In those years, however, young artists also pursued other issues and claim for themselves the aesthetics of a synthesis between their heritage of Arab-Moslem calligraphy and Western abstraction. Mohamed Khadda, M’Hammed Issiakhem, Mohamed LouaÏl, or Choukri Mesli impose and pursue work that asserts its importance once the country’s independence is retrieved; this finds confirmation in their participation, amongst others, in the gathering of 1967 established under the name of "Aouchem" - The school of pattern - which perpetuates this research and manner of expression.

Mohamed LouaÏl

Choukri Mesli

In the years around the end of the War of Independence, an irrefutable rupture marks cultural life, a change that is most particularly verifiable on a structural level with the creation in 1963 of the "Union Nationale des Arts Plastiques" [National Union of Fine Arts]. If a certain preponderance for aesthetics close to Socialist Realism may be observed and the desire to privilege all "popular" art forms is seen in numerous public commissions of the time, the presence of artists more engaged in singular means of expression, of which Ismail Samson and Denis Martinez are among the most representative, is equally noticeable.

At the beginning of the seventies and most particularly in the eighties, attempts to break away from academic painting take place at the École des Beaux-arts [College of Fine Arts] and find expression in the work of artists such as Malek Salah and Hellal Zoubir. During the terrible 1990s, however, their teachings experienced years of relative silence and their revival these last few years has been all the stronger with the creation of the Essebaghine group, with, amongst others, Karim Sergoua and Ammar Bouras, whose works are in this show.

Houria Niati

Samta Benyahia

Ammar Bouras

Zineb Sedira

Then, it seemed necessary to present Algerian artists who are members of the "diaspora", of which Samta Benyahia, who lives in France, and Houria Niati, based in London since 1977, are the most representative. Finally, the exhibition introduces a generation born in France after 1962: here from the many artists represented in that group, we have selected works by Zineb Sedira, who was born in Paris but lives in London, and whose work interrogates issues of feminine representation in Arab-Moslem and Western cultures.

In substance, this history would seem eminently related to those of other post-colonial situations that have seen artists and art fight it out and assert themselves in a ray of contradictions and complexities generated first by the presence and then by the heritage of teachings from the Western world. Despite the endeavor of the phenomenon of globalization - with its own contradictions and often-arguable objectives - to record the multiform presence of contemporary creation in all the regions and cultures of the world, the relative absence of Algeria in this concert of current recognition is clearly manifest. The reasons for this situation are themselves numerous and complex and depend as much from the very particular colonial history of this country as from the difficult and delicate task faced by the artists of creating art that rallies cultural identity to a participation in modern issues.

It is however less paradox to examine how the changes and mutations affecting Western art in the last two decades have led us to reconsider - with the help of other criteria and modes of evaluation - the proposals that have been made on its periphery for almost a century. The linear historicity of art having come to an end, retrospective readings of its production and chronological merits are themselves questioned, thus enabling us to concentrate more on the realities of specific individual and cultural commitment to be found here and there, even if this means being part of an exogenous historical account, whilst still putting claim to an individual history.

It is impossible to treat these issues comprehensively through the selection of artists presented in the exhibition; they are therefore more profoundly bespoken in a publication with contributions by several authors, a catalogue chapter on the artists in the show, and finally an appendix comprising manifestos, articles, writings, and forewords of specific exhibitions… The volume thus intends to provide critical and lesser-known information on the artistic history of this country.

Malika Bouabdella treats certain special features such as Khadda, Issiakhem and Mesli in the context of independence, Dalila Orfali writes about purchase politics and the founding of a museum of fine arts, Fatma Zohra Zamoum is concerned with the more contemporary period, from the 1970s until today.


The twentieth century in Algerian art was organized and realized in the context of "Djazaïr, Year of Algeria in France", Commissariat Général algérien [General Algerian Office] of "A year of Algeria in France", Commissariat Général français [General French Office], AFAA, Ministère des Affaires Etrangères [Ministry of Foreign Affairs] and Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication [Ministry of Culture and Communication].

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Fantasia

Oran harbour

Boulevard front de mer d'Oran

M'Hamed Issiakhem par Kateb Yacine



C'était un narrateur inépuisable. Il me racontait son enfance, sa vie de tous les jours, jusqu'à notre rencontre. Il se livrait entièrement, ce qui ne l'empêchait pas d'affabuler et de brouiller les pistes, lorsqu'il se laissait prendre au charme du récit. Il devenait alors un grand écrivain, sauf qu'il parlait au lieu d'écrire.

La plus vive sensibilité, une intelligence toujours en éveil, le don du verbe et du geste, tout lui appartenait, et il usait de tous ces dons, en tyrannique virtuose, mais aussi en martyr, car il vivait toujours sous le choc de cette maudite grenade américaine, qui lui explosa dans la main, et qui ne finissait pas d'exploser dans sa vie. Que faisait-elle en Algérie, cette grenade américaine ? Elle aurait dû servir à combattre les nazis. Au contraire, elle mutilait et tuait des enfants... Pour vivre la vie d'Issiakhem, il fallait exploser avec lui, pendant des heures, des nuits, et des semaines...

Notre amitié ne fut jamais limitée aux artistes. Nous fréquentions aussi des ouvriers, des étudiants, des gens de tous les milieux. Nos amis étaient innombrables.

Parfois, dans Paris ou à Mantes-la-Jolie, nous étions une horde : acteurs, musiciens, manœuvres, chômeurs, etc... D'autres fois, nous nous retrouvions à quatre ou à cinq, comme dans Nedjma. Nous étions alors une étrange famille, qui me faisait penser au roman de Dostoïevski : les frères Karamozov. C'est pourquoi Issiakhem m'appelait " karama ". Quant à moi, je l'appelais " Oeil-de-Lynx ", pour sa clairvoyance. Nous avions ainsi tout un code. Nos délires collectifs, s'ils avaient pu être enregistrés, formeraient aujourd'hui une bibliothèque.

Il pouvait être aussi un excellent acteur, et tint le rôle de Mustapha dans une lecture publique du Cadavre encerclé, ma première pièce publiée par la revue Esprit, alors que commençait la lutte armée en Algérie. Cette lecture publique avait été organisée au boulevard Saint-Michel par Ahmed Inal, responsable des étudiants algériens à Paris, avant la création de l'UGCMR.

Issiakhem était très lié avec Inal, qui se chargea de recueillir une centaine de souscriptions en vue de publier en tirage à part le cadavre encerclé.

Le premier souscripteur était Gérard Philipe... Quant à Inal, il mourut peu après, les armes à la main...

... Je l'ai vu, plus d'une fois, finir une toile en quelques heures, pour la détruire tout à coup, et la refaire encore, comme si son oeuvre aussi était une grenade qui n'a jamais fini d'exploser dans ses mains. On détruisant son oeuvre, dans un suprême effort de tension créatrice, comme pour briser le piège ultime de la beauté, le peintre viole ses propres formes, car le démon de la recherche le pousse toujours plus loin. Mais toute création commence nécessairement par l'autodestruction. Pour se faire soi-même, il faut toujours trancher les liens, s'opposer à une société qui tue l'homme dans l'artiste et l'artiste dans l'homme. Le peintre qui se veut réellement créateur ne peut pas adorer l'oeuvre créée par lui. Il ressent le besoin de l'éprouver sans cesse. Il court effectivement le risque de la détruire. Et dans cette destruction, il voit en un éclair la gerbe d'œuvres futures qu'il va tirer du feu, de même que le Vietnam s'est construit sous les bombes.

On ne connaît encore que quelques-unes de ses œuvres ; c'est qu'Issiakhem est généreux. Il offre ce qu'il fait, ou s'en sépare pour survivre. Il habite un enfer où il faut faire feu de tout bois, et c'est lui-même qu'on voit brûler, d'un bout à l'autre de son oeuvre. A cette extrême et haute tension, l'art est une catastrophe, un naufrage de l'homme, une vision de l'invisible et un signe arraché à la partie des morts. Mais l'enfer où il vit est la plus belle des fonderies, car c'est là qu'il travaille, avec la rage des Fondateurs. Et ce travail se fait par bonds, ou par sursauts imprévisibles, un travail de volcan à l'intérieur de l'homme, pour qu'il puisse dire : "Je me suis fait moi-même, je reviens du néant, et j'ai lutté contre la mort, grenade contre grenade."

KATEB Yacine

M'Hamed Issiakhem (1928-1985)


Resurrection du Chahid-1978


Algerian painter M'Hamed Issiakhem was born in Douar Djennad, near Azzefoun, in 1928; died in Algiers, on 1st december 1985). Wounded by a home-made bomb in 1943, his left arm was amputated and he was hospitalized for two years. From 1947 to 1951 he studied first at the Société des Beaux-Arts and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Algiers, while simultaneously training in miniature painting with Omar Racim. In 1953, he continued his studies at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he worked in the painting atelier of Raymond Legueult (1898–1978), graduating in 1958. While in Paris, Issiakhem witnessed the development of abstract Expressionism and other artistic styles, which he quickly adopted. A pioneer of modern algerian art, he was one of the founders of the algerian National Union of Plastic Arts in 1963 and held exhibitions in Algeria and abroad. Attracted by left-wing ideas, he travelled to Vietnam in 1972 and Moscow in 1978. In his work, male figures are surrounded by forms, signs and blotches in sombre colours, while his female figures express drama and silent suffering (e.g. hommage to Katia ; 1984; oil on canvas; Paris, Institut du Monde Arabe).

M'Hamed Isiakhem is a very famous Algerian artist; he was born in June 17, 1928. As he was a little kid , during World War II, he saw the allied forces invading the country, as Algeria was a French colony at that time. His curiosity led him to run after one American military truck and jump inside of it to steel something that he wanted to play with. He was happy with his new toy and went away balancing it from one hand to another until suddenly a big explosion blasted his left hand away. He then realized that he just lost most part of his left hand and the toy was in fact a grenade. That was the shock of his life, which reflected on most of his work. A signature of a hand and a touch of sorrow, characterize most of his marvels. That is why his style went more into a tragic abstracted expressionism, which is now the tendency of many of his followers in the land of unique artists, our mother Algeria.

He died in December 1, 1985 from cancer but his art will live to eternity. Just before he died he said his famous words:" A country without artists is a dead land; a society is forever in a vital need for creative artists".


Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Yves Saint Laurent

His name is known throughout the world and graces the garments of international celebrities. A celebrity himself, this renowned fashion designer began life in Algeria. His name? Yves Saint Laurent.

Through the years Yves Saint Laurent has established a remarkable reputation for outstanding design and has established a leading fashion empire. He is known as one of the greatest and most influential fashion designer of the twentieth century. Although Saint Laurent has retired, he has left behind an important legacy and he will not easily be forgotten.

Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent was born in 1936 in the city of Oran, Algeria. From a young age, Yves Saint Laurent showed a keen interest in design and at the age of 17 he left Algeria, hoping to make a name for himself in Paris, France. In 1954 he won a design contest and soon found himself employed by Christian Dior. At the 21 years of age, after Dior died in 1957, Saint Laurent became the Haute Couture designer and rescued the fashion house from ruin.

Not long after his success at Dior, Yves Saint Laurent was conscripted by the French army. In 1962 Saint Laurent established his own design label, called YSL, with the assistance of Pierre Bergé. His first collection, called “Ligne Trapeze”, was a great success. Following this, Saint Laurent designed a number of exciting, popular trends, including the ‘beatnik’ look and ‘Le Smoking’ suit. He managed to recreate feminine sophistication and to blend couture into everyday street wear.

In the year 1983, Yves Saint Laurent was honored to be the only living fashion designer to be hailed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. His fashion house was sold to Sanofi in 1993 and in 1999 Gucci purchased the YSL label. Saint-Laurent continued to design the haute couture, whilst Tom Ford was put in charge of the ready-to-wear clothing. Yves Saint Laurent retired in 2002 and spends much time in his home country, Algeria.

Indeed, Algerian born Yves Saint Laurent has left an indelible mark on the world of fashion. An innovative designer, he introduced numerous new trends and brought out the glamour in every woman who wore his clothing. He was the first to use items typically aimed at men to outline the beauty of women, including tuxedos, leather jackets, pant suits and blazers. He loved art, and reflected this in his creations. Saint Laurent was also inspired by folk and ethnic elements from various cultures. Yves Saint Laurent has contributed much to fashion and his legacy will remain for many years to come.

Yasmina Khadra

Yasmina Khadra is the pen name of the Algerian author Mohammed Moulessehoul (born January 10, 1955).

Moulessehoul, an officer in the Algerian army, adopted a woman's pseudonym to avoid military censorship. Despite the publication of many successful novels in Algeria, Moulessehoul only revealed his true identity in 2001 after leaving the army and going in France. Anonymity was the only way for him to survive . In 2004, Newsweek acclaimed him as "one of the rare writers capable of giving a meaning to the violence in Algeria today."

His novel set in Afghanistan under the Taliban The Swallows of Kabul was shortlisted for the 2006 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. L'Attentat won the Prix des libraires in 2006, a prize chosen by about five thousand bookstores in France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada.

Bibliography

  • Houria (1984)
  • La fille du pont (1985)
  • El Kahira (1986)
  • De l'autre côté de la ville (1988)
  • Le privilège du phénix (1989)
  • Le dingue au bistouri (1990)
  • La Foire des Enfoirés (1993)
  • Les agneaux du seigneur (1998)
  • Morituri (1997)
  • Double blanc (1998) (translated into English as Double blank)
  • L'automne des chimères (1998) (Autumn of the Phantoms)
  • À qui rêvent les loups (1999) (Wolf Dreams)
  • L'écrivain (2001)
  • L'imposture des mots (2002)
  • Les hirondelles de kaboul (2002) (The Swallows of Kabul); As andorinhas de Cabul (Sá Editora/Brasil, 2007)
  • Cousine K (2003)
  • La part du mort (2004)
  • L'attentat (2005); The Attack (2006); O atentado (Sá Editora, Brasil/2006)
  • Les sirènes de Bagdad (2006); As sirenas de Bagdá (Sá Editora/Brasil/2007)
  • In the Name of God








BIBLIOGRAPHY

MORITURI (Review)

Algeria today. A mysterious disappearance: the daughter of an important representative of the anciene regime. The investigation, with Inspector Llob in charge, leads to the description-analysis of a nation with on one side the fierceness of the integralists and the political-financial mafia on the other.

DOUBLE BLANC

Ben Ouda, former diplomat, once very powerful, is brutally assassinated in his house at Algiers. A few hours later, Abad Nasser, university professor, follows suit. The investigation establishes that the same commando of three men is implicated in the two murders. The reason? A mysterious document that could lead to devastating political repercussions which Ben Ouda wanted make public…

L'AUTOMNE AUX CHIMERES

Brahim Llob, the policeman-writer is summoned by the chief of Algerian police and is fired for having published... Morituri, a book considered dishonorable and full of lies. Following a trip back to his hometown victim of an attack by a GIA commando, Llob goes back to Algiers...

LE DINGUE AU BISTOURI

Algiers in winter. Brahim Llob answers the phone: a mysterious journalist tells him that there is going to be a murder… the first of a serial killer. Is he mad? A pervert with strange motivations? This is not what Llob thinks. Each death is coldly premeditated, accurately carried out. The man tortures his victims, cuts out their hearts and then places a black star on the body.

IN THE NAME OF GOD (Original title: LES AGNEAUX DU SEIGNEUR)

At Ghachimat, a small Algerian village where rancor fuels the collective memory, three friends try to become responsible adults - Allal Sidhom, 26, is a policemen; Kada Hilal, teacher, is a member of the Islamic Movement currently clandestine; Jafed Wahab finds it difficult to leave the village. After the prayer, the friends meet for a drink and try to forget the weight of tradition. Who will be first to get married? Who will seduce beautiful Sarah? At Ghachimat, love is hidden. During this time, people rebel, Algiers is at war. Allal marries Sarah and the entire village is invited. Kada, who loves her in secret, thinks he will no longer get over the disappointment and decides to follow the terrorist path. The village sees the arrival of the integralists violence and the reign of terror begins. Ghachimat plunges into fanatism and blood.

A QUOI REVENT LES LOUPS

Nafa Walid is a young Algerian of modest origin who dreams of an improbable international acting career. While waiting for glory he finds a job as driver of one of the most prestigious families in Algiers and discovers the totally corrupt universe of Algerian nomenclature. For these people, rich over and above imagination, laws do not exist…

L'ECRIVAIN

Autobiography of the author, L'Ecrivain unveils the true identity of Yasmina Khadra.

Series
MorituriDouble Blank
Novels
In the name of GodWolf DreamsThe Swallows of KabulAutumn of the Phantoms
The AttackThe Sirens of Baghdad